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asmaa ali

on 11 December 2017

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Transcript of BLOOD

blood grouping
Rh. Factor
definition :
it is a special body fluid, responsible for the delivery of the essential nutrient substances and oxygen to different body cells and remove wastes from these cells
90% water
7% plasma protein ( albumin )
2% organic substances
1% inorganic substances
erythrocytes- R.B.C.s
leukocytes- W.B.C.s
platelets- thrombocytes

formed elements:
the shape :
circular biconcave disc
the missing organelles :
the nucleus
1) the nucleus :
no mitosis
there is a benefit :)
2) mitochondria
ATP through anaerobic respiration
Do not use the oxygen needed by the organs
normal count :
5 millions / mm3
life span :
120 days
Hematocrit value ( HV )
the percentage ratio of RBCs volume to the total blood volume
male = 46%
female = 42%
newborn = 65 %
2) leukocytes
normal count
4500- 10000 mm3
low count:
high count:
infection ( fever )
neutrophils :
highly phagocytic
first response to microbial infection
eosinophils :
fight parasitic infection
weakly phagocytic
basophils :
produce and carry histamine and anticoagulant
3) Platelets ( thrombocytes )
structure :
granular - non-nucleated - oval bodies
smallest of the formed elements
production regulation :
binds to the circulating platelets
if platelets levels are adequate :
serum levels remain low
( no stimulation of production )
if platelet count is decreased, more thrombopoeitin circulates freely ( stimulate the production)
normal count :
life span
9 - 10 days
main function
essential for haemostasis
platelets abnormalities
1) idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (itp)
low platelets without known cause
Etiology : mainly autoimmune
symptoms :
bleeding gum, nose bleeding, purple colour under skin
platelets abnormalities
2) HCV
or ?
or ?
Hemoglobin it is a red pigment that carries oxygen molecules in the RBCs
it consists of :
4 globins ( polypeptide chain )
4 heme group .
each erythrocyte contains about 280 million hemoglobin molecules
types of hemoglobin :
Hb A : normal adult Hb
Hb F : fetal Hb
hemoglobin content of the blood
it is the amount of Hb in grams present in 100 ml of the blood
13 - 16 mg Hb%
12 - 15 mg Hb%
clinical significance :
low Hb content : anemia
high Hb content : Polycythemia
blood grouping
human blood
is classified into 4 main blood groups: A, B, AB, O
according to the presence or absence of :

antigen on RBCs membrane
antibodies in the plasma
an antigen never exists with its corresponding antibody
if this occurs, agglutination or clumping of RBCs would result, followed by hemolysis of RBCs.
blood transfusion
compatible blood :
it is the blood which does not cause
( antigen - antibody ) reaction when transfused ( agglutination )
incompatible blood
the donor RBCs is agglutinated by the antibodies of the recipient plasma.
Group O : universal donor
group AB : universal recipient
Rh factor
( Rh antigen or D-antigen )
Rh factor is an antigen that was discovered in the RBCs of Rhesus monkey.
it is present in 85% of people ( Rh-positive )
it is absent in 15 % of people ( Rh-negative )
there is no anti-Rh ( anti-D ) antibodies in the plasma of both Rh+ and Rh- of normal persons.
clinical significance :
1 ) in blood transfusion
2) in marriage and pregnancy
in blood transfusion :
if an Rh- person is transfused with Rh+, anti Rh antibodies develop in his plasma.
later on, if he needs another blood transfusion and is given Rh+ blood, agglutination of the donor's RBCs occurs inside the blood vessels of the recipient.
in marriage and pregnancy :
erythroblastosis fetalis
( hemolytic disease of newborn )
when Rh-antibodies of the mother cross the placenta, start to attach the fetus causing hemolysis.
the baby is born dead or severely anemic and jaundiced.
prevention :
anti- Rh injection is given immediately after delivery (max 72 hrs) of the first baby.
another injection is given at the 28th week of the second pregnancy.
an extra part :D
Blood pressure
it is the lateral pressure of the blood on the arterial wall.
A.B.P = systolic B.P. / diastolic B.P.
systolic B.P. : the lateral pressure of blood on the arterial wall during systole.
the maximum pressure reached in the arteries during systole
range : 100-140 mmHg ( average 120 mmHg )
diastolic B.P. is the lateral pressure of blood on the arterial wall during diastole.
the minimum pressure reached in the arteries just before ventricular systole.
range : 60-90 mmHg ( average 80 mmHg )
blood pressure =
resistance of the vessels X cardiac output
blood pressure measurement
infected liver ->
no synthesis of thrombopoeitin ->
low platelets synthesis ->
Full transcript