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AP PROJECT jerry clark
Transcript of AP PROJECT jerry clark
Ecology is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their physical and chemical environment. Many times ecology is solely seen as the scientific study of pollution and environmental disasters; But it also can be looked at as the way humans have been affected by use of natural resources, and how we've affected each other overtime because of them. Since early years as a nation we found ourselves doing what we felt was necessary to survive not only as a species but also a nation. We took the rights of slaves as human beings to start up the nations agriculture system, took land from native americans to be able to withstand population booms from immigration, and built cities from capitalist gains brought by industrialism's greatest innovators, though powered by the poor who inhabited the cities polluted slums; which symbolized the corrupt gap of the rich and poor. Ecology can be defined many ways, But it simply means our actions and consequences we take and face to sustain the life we have pursued as a evolving nation and species.
In America's early years the south gained most of its capital from slave trade, plantation crops, and being the supplier of cotton to half of the worlds manufacturing industry. After many generations of passed down plantations, owners found that these quick profits led to excessive land cultivation that destroyed the frontiers fertile soil. When a small farmers land began to worsen he would simply sell his land to bigger plantations and move westward. This foreshadowed many events that would affect the united states environmentally and economically.
Men who built America
Post-civil war era
;A nation of the fittest
Today I will discuss ewhat the U.S has learned from its ecological practices, both the good and bad throughout history.
The United States has always been seen as one of the most fast developing nations throughout history; from the agriculture market that fueled the colonists livelihoods, economic needs for expansion and developing a pre-existing economy, to the industrial revolution that brought not only advancement in production,technology, and global market representation but also pollution, Biodiversity depletion, and the social theory of social Darwinism. Concluding with what we have learned from these practices and what we can do in the future to grow a better understanding of how to live a more ecological friendly society?
Americas development story is a key factor to its ecological practices, coming into the industrial revolution which took place from the18th to the 19th century. Rural societies in America had started to become more industrial and urban. Prior to the revolution manufacturing was mostly done in peoples homes by hand tools or basic machinery. Industrialization marked a change to powered machines in factories to accumulate mass production.New textile and iron factories also brought with it the steam and coal engine which improved systems of communication and transportation.
The Transcontinental Railroads not only brought expansion to the nation, it also brought jobs, new states, tied the country together, stimulated mining and agriculture westward; even if that meant taking land from the inhabitant Native Americans and the destruction of white pine forest in the northern midwest due to settlers need for timber to build towns. Farms and cities began to prosper along the railroads with easy access to transportation, food, and raw materials. Though the revolution advanced the nation as a country it also started the ecological domino effect we still are witnessing today. By the early 20th century the united states became the world's leading industrial nation.
Railroads brought not only expansion, but also a national market economy that created a class of millionaires.
Inside of this new class of wealth came the most significant way of thinking to the country;The American Dream. Success stories such as Andrew Carnegie showed a prime showcase of the Rags to Riches story, which showed even a poor boy who was the descendent of immigrant parents could have perfected the monopoly industry of steel which influenced urban cities to adopt the skyscraper structure and more steel structure innovations.
This gave the idea that all opportunities were possible in America if one truly worked hard. This Gave Americans the idea that the poor simply were lazy and incapable to contribute to the new evolving nation.
By the mid 1800s many white settlers began to travel westward to explore new lands of the western territories. Despite Naive americans, Americans kept their conscience clean by the Social Darwinism theory of survival of the fittest; which pretty much gave the idea that as long as the wealth are gaining from the situation they seem to be the fittest out of natural selection. Once again these natives were seen as in the way of the advancing white pioneers.The land was soon taken away by disease, alcohol, and the american government who felt its mission was to redeem and remake the west in the image of America. This resulted in many altercations which led to white settlers killing bison which were the natives primary resource of food, fuel, clothing source, and implements to life. Chief Joseph and Nez Perce were at battle in 1877 when US officials tried to force natives on reservations, they had been promised land in their ancestral territory of Idaho and in
the end were sent to Kansas. The famous Apache tribes of New Mexico and Arizona were hard to overrun due to tough terrains but later fled to Mexico or would surrender due to there woman being taken to Florida. After Relentless polices of assimilation the whites
finally broke the natives will to fight; they fled to reservations trying to preserve what
they had left as a culture.
The Energy Revolution
John D. Rockefeller introduced Standard Oil Americas first energy industry, his company changed the trust system of the economy. kerosene, made from petroleum was the company's first product which created better light than candles. Electricity and the light bulb would replace kerosene lamps in 1879 introduced by inventor Thomas Edison funded by the banking titan J.P Morgan. Standard oil came back in the auto industry was introduced. The US led in automotive production for the next century. Rockefeller was capitalizing on the oil and kerosene boom that began around Pennsylvania, by 1870 Standard became the leading oil refinery in Pennsylvania,by 1900 it had oil refineries national from New York to California exporting oil all over Europe. Many competing oil company's tried to battle standard oil but most were no match for the giant standard oil monopoly.
The day of Industry
Like Standard Oil, other industries began developing such as sugar, tobacco, leather, harvester, and the meat industry. America led in steel production because it was one of few locations in the world that had plenty coal and iron ore to produce it, plus the lower and middle class workforce. Tobacco symbolized the representation of agriculture manufacturing in the south. James duke took advantage of this and began mass producing cigarettes in 1890 he formed the monopoly American Tobacco Company.
Urban life had become very attracting
during the industrial period, Cities grew
both up and out.
Skyscrapers allowed more people and workplaces to occupy small areas of land. Because of the
speculation of farming; Cities drew country folks
into the labor force because the alluring electricity, they needed a guaranteed wage to provide the needs and wants of there families in this new consumerism society. Waste became a big issue in the new heavily populated cities; sanitation, impure water,and uncollected garbage were big problems.
The city represented an American prosperity contradiction, big buildings with wealthy upper class influences while filthy, crowded and polluted for the working class.
Steam boats and the popular view of America as the land of opportunity caused Immigrants from Europe to migrate by 1910 13.5 million had migrated to the United States. The gap between the rich and poor grew even more;
with immigrants willing to work for lesser pay many americans joined unions to protect their jobs though they were dismantled by the capital supporting Federal government, who rather took the beneficial bribes
of big business than protect the working rights of its
Education became more important when more states required students to stay in school until the age of 16, it also complemented child labor laws to fight factories over working younger children.
The nation felt to sustain our level of power and wealth we needed to push the education agenda. Whites and blacks still segregated had different environments of public schools.
blacks attended low funded schools, were whites had the more prestigious schools. Science also made advances in education which aided our nation in health care and better nutrition.
The Great depression
The great depression was a series of events that showed what a unpredictable economy and greedy biodegrading agriculture practices could lead to.
Mass production of crops by the 1930's had soared because of food source for war and immigration which caused the population to increase, which meant there were more people to feed.
The dust bowl made the depression even worse when the fertile topsoil of the Midwest was made weak by poor farming tactics, which caused it to simply blow away after a drought accompanied by wind and a blizzard occurred.
Farmers were devastated and for the first time discovered how a self-inflicted environmental disaster could affect the economy and everyday life. Farmers went broke and many lost their farms due to not being able to pay the bank back loans.
Another World War was on the verge in Europe; the united states was financially hurt but found a way to benefit from the war. Theodore Roosevelt passed the neutrality act of 1939, which stated we would not become involved or supply loans but would sell war materials to european democracies. Oversea
orders caused a positive hike in the economy, which set the foreign policy precedent that we must do what fits best for
the united states and our economy. In the future we would notice many of our war efforts would only be pursued for self gain or the US expressing its self given authority of a world power.
The welfare system came out of the New Deal programs which were introduced shortly after the great depression when many workers became unemployed.
Many programs like social security ,disability and financial aid were introduced to help the poor. Many people saw these struggling times as a moment in history were we had did good deeds, some refereed to this way of giving as the social gospel movement.
Soup kitchens and homeless shelters appeared all over the country, this represented the starting mindset of giving back which has played such a big role in the nation.
Ulysses S. Grant was a big time environmentalist supporter he established the first national park,Yellowstone located mostly in Wyoming. The country learned to admire the beauty of the land and work to preserve most of it.
On June 10, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an Executive Order which consolidated all National Parks and National Monuments, National Military Parks, the National Cemeteries, and National Memorials into a single National Park System. The National Park Service was directed to oversee all of these areas.
For years the united states had a problem with its greenhouse gas emissions.
We gave off the top c02 emissions in the world until china caught up to us in 2006. The US still is in the process of lowering carbon dioxide emissions but still struggles with choosing more clean natural resources.
Solar energy has been put into play as we've evolved as a species, but we still rely on the old natural resources that continue to harm the environment
As a country we many times look past the reality that were only human,and as humans we evolved overtime, found new resources that benefited our lives, and followed the natural way of natural selection as we applied to our social class system and government.
To answer the question of what have we learned as a nation from our ecological practices; or lack of, is simply this, as we've grown as a species and a nation we've found ourselves at the top of the food chain. In the wild the laws of the circle of life is based on the natural way of eat or be eaten.
Obviously the united states is far different and advanced compared to the wildlife to were we've gained so much prosperity from our resources that we've included its uses in our ways of life no matter what the cost or in other words, our food chain. As our population continued to grow throughout history we learned as a nation we must learn to sustain the way of life known as the american dream; as a species we felt the world and its resources in it were ours for the taking.
Through history we were proved wrong but as a species that was our ecological destiny and our way of evolving around it. Now that we know were wrong we must learn to adapt a sustainable way of life or face the consequences.
Carson, Rachel, Lois Darling, and Louis Darling. Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962. Print.
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