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Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, and Ribosomes:
Transcript of Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, and Ribosomes:
By Hannah Thornlimb and Meaghan Robert
A vacuole takes up about 90% of a cell's volume and provides the turgor of a cell. It causes cells to swell It fills with water from osmosis and pushes the cytoplasm to the perimeter of the cells.
Importance of the Vacuole:
isolates possibly harmful materials
maintains turgor pressure in cells
maintains the acidic internal pH
contains small molecules
A membrane bounded inclusion found in eukaryotic cells. They digest most of the macromolecules found in the rest of the cell.
Barrett, James M., Peter Abramoff, A. Krishna. Kumaran, and William F. Millington. Biology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1986. Print.
Peroxisomes and Lysosomes. N.d. Photograph. Cytochemistry. Cytochemisty. Web. <http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/PEROX.JPG>.
Davis, P. William., Eldra Pearl. Solomon, and Linda R. Berg. The World of Biology. Fourth ed. Philadelphia, Penn.: Saunders College Pub., 1990. Print.
Lysosome Structure. N.d. Photograph. Biology4kids. Biology4kids. Web. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/art/cell_lysosome1.gif>.
Purves, W. K., G. H. Orians, and H. C. Heller. Life: The Science of Biology. Fifth ed. Sunderland,MA: Sinauer, 1998. Print.
Ribosomes. N.d. Photograph. Hyper Physics. Hyper Physics. Web. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/imgbio/ribosome.gif>.
"Ribosomes - Protein Construction Teams." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Ribosomes. N.p., 2013. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_ribos.html>.
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A liquid filled cavity in a cell enclosed within a single membrane. Vacuoles play a wide variety of roles in cellular metabolism some being digestive chambers, some storage chambers, some waste bins, and so forth.
Under a microscope vacuoles look empty, but they are actually filled with aqueous solutions containing dissolved substances.
Plants store their waste materials in vacuoles.
When the plants store the waste in the vacuoles, the predators don’t want to eat it, for it is distasteful or poisonous to the predator.
The color pigments in plants are contained by vacuoles, making bees want to visit them. So, vacuoles aid in the dispersal of seeds.
Contractile vacuoles get rid of excess water in plants.
In thier simplest form, lysosomes are classified as dense, spherical vacuoles.
They speed up and break down the process of:
The golgi makes them.
They combine with a phagosome to form a secondary lysosome, where digestion takes place.
The secondary lysosome contains enzymes that break down the food particles with water(hydrolyze).
An organelle that has one or more enzymes to digest amino acids, lactic acid, and other substances.
In some plants they work with Chloroplast to recirculate photosynthesis products.
mammalian liver cells
Lysosomes use up to 20 percent of the oxygen in liver cells to convert hydrogen peroxide, a Toxic product of metabolism, to oxygen and water.
consists of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
Ribosomes have 2 subunits:
The smaller sub unit is a molecule of rRNA and 21 different protein molecules.
The larger subunit has two molecules of rRNA and 34 different protein molecules.
The subunits fit together like puzzle pieces, but move slightly apart during protein synthesis, when the ribosome makes a protein.
In a binding site in the ribosome called the P-Site an amino acid is added to a poly peptide chain.
The PSite holds the growing poly peptide chain, while the ASite holds the next amino acid to be added to the chain.
Process of Making Proteins:
The nucleus creates messenger RNA(mRNA) and sends it into the cell.
The mRNA combines with ribosomes.
Transfer RNA(tRNA) binds with the amino acids in the cell.
The mRNA sends messages to the ribosome.
The ribosome connects to the tRNA and pulls off one amino acid at a time.
The ribosome makes an amino acid chain that reads like the mRNA message.
Finally, the ribosome uses protein synthesis and creates protein.