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Transcript of Martin Luther
Great Western Schism
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
University of Vienna and University of Basel
Ordained and becomes a pastor
Preached on scripture alone -
Church and State work together
Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468)
In Europe circa 1450
Mass production of cheap books
Became main communication form
Limited Church censorship
Protestant Reformation (1517-ca. 1650)
Martin Luther (cont.)
Diet of Worms (April 1521)
Translation of the Bible into German
Protestant faith and Luther's theology
Anton Von Werner, 1877
Born: Eisleben, Germany
Great Western Schism
Split in the Roman Catholic Church
Creation of two, and then three popes
Ended at Council of Constance
Creation of Towns
Change to a money economy
Resentment of Serfdom
Usually held religious undertones
Clerical ranks and paying for jobs
Mix up of ambitions
Not able to do jobs effectively
Both were stopped by the Church
The Reformation did not appear out of nothing
Luther was not the first to attempt reform
Nationalism played a large role in how the Reformation developed
Used by the German Reformation
Supported reform ideas
Used images as still low literacy
Could be mass produced with wood cutouts
30 Years War
Seperation of the church and the state
Created more political affiliations
States acted in the interest of their people
Decision not religiously motivated
Arthur, Henry's older brother who was heir to the throne.
Henry had been raised to be given to the church.
Died when he was 15, making Henry the new heir.
Catherine of Aragon, Henry's 1st wife
"If a man marries his brother's wife, it is an act of impurity; he has dishonored his brother. They will be childless." (Leviticus 20:21)
Henry wants a male heir.
Believed that the aftermath of the War of the Roses required a strong male King.
Catherine gives birth to Mary I, but fails to give Henry a son.
Translation of Bible into German
1527, attempts to receive annulment from Pope Clement VII
Cited Leviticus and the violating of the sacredness of his older brother's marriage to Catherine as his main argument.
The plan fails.
Henry becomes interested in Anne Boleyn.
1531 banishes Catherine from her quarters
1533 marries Anne Boleyn
Catherine stripped of her title as Queen.
Story of Doctor Faustus
Act in Restraint of Appeals 1532 (Appeals to Rome and the Pope concerning religious matters are now illegal, the King is now the ultimate authority)
Act of Succession 1533 (Anne Boleyn's unborn child is new heir rather than Mary I)
Acts of Supremacy 1534 (Henry is the leader of the Church of England, answers only to God, not the pope)
Pope Clement VII then excommunicated King Henry VIII and Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Pamphlets and theater propaganda to gain support for Henry's decisions
1536 Dissolution of the Monasteries in England, Wales and Ireland
Money went to English government
Prince Edward I
Queen Mary I "Blood Mary"
Elizabeth I "Elizabeth the Great"
The Great Bible 1539
The Common Book of Prayer 1549
Made religion more accessible to the common English person, took authority away from the Pope and Catholic Church
Politically based, not due to religious difference.
All in all....
Max Weber and "The Spirit of Capitalism"
Developed in Europe
What is it?
Capitalism because of Protestantism???
Ties into Calvininsm and "The Protestant Ethic"
Lots of criticism
Born: July 10, 1509 in France
Joined cause of Reformation
"Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Religious Teachings and Influence
Emphasized divine predestination
Forced out of Geneva, went to Germany, invited back
Spread throughout Europe with pastors
How did Calvin's beliefs differ from those of Luther?
5 Points of Calvinism
Perseverance of the saints
The Thirty Years War
Reformation had created fragmented Protestant and Catholic States
Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Bohemia tried to force Catholicism upon all of his subjects 1618
Moved his campaign into Germany to attack Protestant supporters
The power of the Holy Roman Empire was demolished, and Germany became several sovereign states, with the ability to choose their own religion
Huldrych Zwingli (con't)
A true Christian community
Christian Civic League
Died in battle 1531 - age 47
Denominations As a Result of Protestantism
The (Swiss) Reformed Church
(Conrad Grebel - 1525)
(Martin Luther - 1517)
(George Fox - 1648)
(John Smyth - 1609)
Diet of Worms
1. The English Reformation was not based on theological disagreement.
2. England ultimately ended up staying protestant, even after the death of King Henry VIII.
Even before Luther posted his 95 theses, Zwingli openly opposed pilgrimages and indulgences
Protestantism opened the doorway to many Christian denominations.
The Reformation came about due to controversies in the Catholic Church which were instigated by the reformation leaders in Europe whose reforms created a plethora of wide ranging outcomes reflected throughout history and into society today.