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Emotional Development Overview
Transcript of Emotional Development Overview
Why do people act the way that they do?
Emotional Development involves:
conflict between biological drives and social expectations
self-concept and self-esteem
describes how a child approaches and reacts to the world; his or her personal "style'
Behavioral Categories Associated with Temperament
The Easy Child
regular biological routines
easily adapts to change
The Difficult Child
irregular biological routines
slow adjustment to change
intense, negative reaction to new routines and experiences
The Slow-to-Warm-Up Child
fairly regular biological routines
low-to-mild reactions to change
slowly accepts change with repeated exposure
intensity of child's negative emotional arousal
vigor and tempo of the child's verbal and behavioral responses
the child's responsiveness to others
a range of behaviors such as emotional and behavioral control, discipline, and persistence
Why are some children shy and others outgoing?
Why are some children excited to try new things and others resistant to change?
A child's emotional development will impact the type of person he or she becomes and the way he or she responds to people, experiences, and his or her environment.
Our temperament and personality are closely tied together.
Temperament = how we behave
Personality = why we behave as we do
emotions = subjective reactions to
events and experiences
experienced as being pleasant
result in a behavioral response
or change of some kind
serve to cause certain
reactions to achieve a goal
represent responses to situational demands and serve as regulators of behavior
Example: You feel pride (emotion) when you get good grades (goal). To continue to feel pride, you study hard so that you get good grades (action/behavior regulation).
INFANCY = basic emotions (happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness
Early Childhood = self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt, envy, pride); talk about simple emotions; recognize that others have emotions
Middle Childhood/Early Adolescence = experience many emotions at once; emotions have causes; rules for appropriately expressing emotions
Middle and Late Adolescence to Adulthood =
better reflect on emotional state; increasingly moody; can hide true emotions
managing your emotions
two strategies for managing emotions:
problem-focused coping =
seeking information, developing solutions, or taking action to solve a problem or modify a situation
emotion-focused coping =
expressing emotions, seeking comfort and support from others, and avoiding stressful events to maintain a positive emotional state
self-concept = informational statements about yourself; facts about you; i.e. a good swimmer, artistic, funny
self-esteem = how you feel about the facts about yourself; i.e. happy that you are artistic, proud that you are a good swimmer
self-concept and self-esteem serve as foundation for development of your identity
identity development involves three domains:
occupation, ideology (values and beliefs), and interpersonal relationships
identity status in each domain is rated on two dimensions:
1. degree to which the person has made commitments
2. degree to which the person has explored different options and alternatives
an individual is assigned to one of four identity statuses: diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, or achievement
you are not actively exploring potential choices or making firm commitments regarding beliefs, social relationships, or occupational plans
correlated with low self-esteem, low self-control, high anxiety, and high apathy
you have not explored different possibilities, but you have committed yourself to certain choices
associated with conformity and
obedience to authority; strong attachment to parents, tend to adopt their values and guidance without seeking things out on their own
you are actively exploring occupational plans, possible beliefs, and personal relationships, but you aren't ready to make firm choices or commitments
associated with lower feelings of well-being, higher anxiety, more conflict with parents; closely associated with an identity crisis; considered a transitional period
you have engaged in exploration and made definite personal, vocational, and/or ideological choices
associated with high self-esteem, self-control, and self-direction; high in academic motivation and career maturity
- high school students typically fall into the diffusion and foreclosure categories
- significant identity exploration typically occurs in the college years
- most young people do not reach identity achievement by age 21
DEVELOPING AN ETHNIC IDENTITY
one's sense of identity concerning racial or ethnic group membership
race is socially determined; different cultures use different criteria for placing people in racial groups
ethnicity refers to the region, nation, or distinctive group with which one identifies, either directly or as a heritage; clearly defined by language, religion, or other major factors
often refers to physical appearance, particularly skin color, eye color, hair color
refers to cultural factors, such as nationality, culture, ancestry, language, and beliefs
Hispanic or Latino
Irish, Italian, British