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VIRAL DISEASES

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katrina vista

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of VIRAL DISEASES

VIRAL DISEASES
Chickenpox
M
U
M
P
S

M
E
A
S
L
E
S

HEPATITIS
What you need to know:
Chickenpox
A highly infectious viral disease
medically known as Varicella.
It causes an itchy, blistery rash that typically
lasts about a week.
It commonly affects children but affects
adults as well.
Signs
&
Symptoms
Chickenpox is caused by the
varicella-zoster virus
which also causes shingles.

Pink or red bumps (papules)
Fluid-filled blisters (vesicles)
Crusts and scabs

• Once the chickenpox rash appears, it goes through three phases:


• The chicken pox rash begins on the trunk and spreads to the face and extremities.
Chickenpox is contagious from 1 to 2 days before the appearance of rash until all blisters have formed scabs or lesions fade away.


Chickenpox infection usually lasts about 5 to 10 days.
It usually takes 10 to 21 days for chickenpox symptoms to appear after exposure to an infected person.
• Most cases of chickenpox require little or no treatment beyond treating the symptoms.

• Treatment is mainly aimed at easing symptoms and trying to make your child as comfortable as possible while the immune system deals with the virus:

TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
Prevention:
• Vaccination
- The best way to prevent chickenpox is to get the chickenpox vaccine. Children, adolescents, and adults should have two doses of chickenpox vaccine.

• Stop virus from spreading


Mumps

is an acute febrile disease characterized by swelling and tenderness of one or more of the salivary glands, usually the parotid and occasionally the sublingual or submaxillary glands.
Causative Agent:
The mumps virus belongs to the genus
Rubulavirus
in the family
Paramyxovirus
and is seen to have a roughly spherical, enveloped morphology of about 200 nm in diameter.
Signs & Symptoms
Treatment & Prevention
There is no treatment for mumps itself, but age-appropriate painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen may help relieve some of the symptoms.
A cold compress such as a moist flannel may help relieve some of the pain from the swollen glands.
Resting and drinking plenty of fluids may be advised, as well as having food such as soup that doesn't need to be chewed
Excluded from childcare, preschool, school or work for 5 days after the onset of swelling
Tissues and other objects soiled with nasal secretions should be disposed of appropriately.
Mumps is best prevented by the (MMR) combination vaccine or the (MMRV) combination vaccine
Vaccination after exposure will not stop the infection, though it will protect against future exposures.


MUMPS
Mumps is a viral infection transmitted by and affecting only humans.
The salivary glands (especially the
parotid gland
) are well known to be involved during a mumps infection.
There is no cure for mumps.
The illness is of short duration
(seven to 10 days)
and resolves spontaneously.
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Signs and Symptoms
Dark urine
Fatigue
Itching
Loss of Appetite
Low-grade fever
Nausea
&
Vomiting
Pale
or
clay-colored
stools
Yellow skin
(jaundice)
Hepatitis A
--> No specific treatment
--> Improved sanitation, food safety and immunization are the most effective ways to combat hepatitis A.
Treatment & Prevention
The spread of hepatitis A can be reduced by:
adequate supplies of safe drinking water
proper disposal of sewage within communities
personal hygiene practices such as regular hand-washing with safe water.
Hepatitis B
 Hepatitis B is also known as:

Type B Hepatitis
It is the
most serious type of viral hepatitis.
Almost
350 million individuals
worldwide are infected
620,000 deaths
worldwide/ year.

1 in 10 Asians
have Chronic Hepatitis B

Causative Agent:
--> Hepatitis B is caused by the
Hepatitis B Virus
or
HBV
HBV is a double stranded DNA virus.

It belongs to a family of viruses known as
Hepadnaviridae.

Primarily found in the
liver
but is also present in the blood and certain body fluids

Period of communicability:

A person can spread Hepatitis B 1-2 months before and after the onset of symptoms.
Persons with chronic Hepatitis B infections are carriers of the virus.
Treatment
Management
Susceptibility & Resistance
Susceptibility is general.

Only people who have been vaccinated successfully or those who have developed anti-HB antibodies after HBV infection are immune to HBV infection.


Chronic HBV infection is also common in persons with immunodeficiency.

The risk of developing chronic infection varies inversely with age.
Prevention / Modes of control
A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1982.
Hepatitis B vaccine is 95% effective in preventing infection and its chronic consequences.

Hepatitis B Vaccine
Doses :
3 doses
Age:
within 24 hrs after birth
Route:
Intramuscular
Site:
Upper outer portion of thigh
Dosage:
0.5mL
Interval:
6 months between first and second vaccines
8 months between second and third vaccines
Diagnostic
test
Blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor people with hepatitis B.

MEASLES
Risk Factors
Being unvaccinated.


Traveling internationally.
Having a vitamin A deficiency.
The incubation period is commonly 10 days from exposure to the onset of fever, and 14 days to the appearance of rash.
The infection occurs in sequential stages over a period of two to three weeks.
Measles Complication
Pneuomonia
About 30 percent of people who get the measles develop complications like pneumonia, ear infections, diarrhea, and encephalitis, according to the CDC. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that causes fever, chest pain, trouble breathing, and a cough that produces mucus. People whose immune system has been weakened by another disease can get an even more dangerous form of pneumonia.
Encephalitis
About one out of every 1,000 children with measles will develop swelling of the brain called encephalitis, according to the CDC. Sometimes encephalitis starts right after the measles. In other cases, it takes months to emerge. Encephalitis can be very serious, leading to convulsions, deafness, and mental retardation in children. It is also dangerous for pregnant women, causing them to give birth too early or to have a baby born underweight.
Getting Over the Measles
Symptoms of the measles often disappear in the same order in which they first emerged. After a few days, the rash should start to fade. It may leave behind a brownish color on the skin, as well as some peeling. The fever and other measles symptoms will recede and you—or your child—should begin to feel better.
Measles is caused by an RNA paramyxovirus of the genus morbillivirus.
MEASLES
Serum Hepatitis
Homologous Serum Jaundice

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