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Chapter 11

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Shelley Potter

on 25 October 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 11

Chapter 11
The Americas Environments Shaped
formation of settlements. First people How did they get here?? “New World” (1505) Clovis Point Amerigo Vespucci
Italian Explorer
First explorer to travel to modern day Venezuela (1497)
Published a letter telling everyone about the new world. Native American Found widely throughout the America’s
First created 11,000 B.C.E.
Controversial dating
Evidence shows there were people before the Clovis people. Tundra, plains, wetlands, woodlands, deserts and rainforests. Amerindians American Indians Development of Agriculture In modern day south Mexico people started raising maize.
“Teosinte” developed mutant forms with large kernels within a husk
The people would crossbred the kernels every year for better crops.
Maize, squash and beans were planted in a field called a milpa.
Maize was viewed as a source of human life and was symbolic religiously. Central Mexico- Chinampas (floating gardens)
1500 B.C.E. maize cultivation spread to Asia, Africa and Europe.
Copper- Great Lakes, Obsidian- The Rocky Mountains
11,000 Monte Verde-potatoes
Chuñu (deep fried potatoes)
Coco-Andes mountain
Tuber-Amazon
2500 B.C.E.-Peru started using irrigation for cotton Crops & Trading Earlier Peruvian Cultures Classical Era:
Mesoamerica and North America The Aztecs War heroes
Warriors
Macehualtin
Tlamaitl
Slaves Social Distinctions among Aztecs Flower Wars-metaphor associated with warfare in Mexica culture.


The objective of the flower wars was to capture warriors from the other side, not to kill them. Flower Wars Polytheistic people.
Quetzalcoatl
Revered by Mexicas as a creator deity and a source of knowledge. Pictured as a feathered serpent god.
2. Huitzilopochtli
Young-warrior god whose name translate as “Blue Humming Bird of the South”
Symbolized the sun blazing at high noon.
According to the Mexias, the sun had to keep moving in itd orbit to avoid having darkness take over the world.
To keep it moving, Aztecs believed the sun needed precious nourishment. Religion and War Aztecs Tradespeople/merchants offered a variety of things.
Foods, delicate gold’s and silvers, clothes, wood, herbs for seasoning, honey, sweets, and even smoking tobacco.
The great temple of Huitzilopochtli also was in the market square.
Massive structure, looked at by the people in admiration and respect.
(Cortes and the Spanish couldn’t believe the city they were witnessing upon arrival. According to Corte’s companions, “ The great towns and temples and building rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.. Indeed, some of our soldiers asked whether or not it was all a dream. Markets Originally built on salt marshes.
4 great causeways that connected it to the mainland.
Openings in the causeways allowed for boats to pass through.
Protected by stone and adobe walls (similar to medieval Constantinople) highly defensible.
Large aqueduct carried pure water from distant springs.
Streets and canals opened into public squares and market places. City Layout As of 1500 the city had about 250,000 people making it one of the largest cities in the world. (At this time, no European country could claim a population even half this size.)
The total Aztec empire had been estimated at 5 million inhabitants, with the total population of Mesoamerica between 20 and 30 million Population Sacrifice This nourishment came by means of human blood and thus is how sacrifice within the Aztec society came about.
Who were the victims?
-Most victims were captives, for the Aztecs controlled their growing empire this way.
The Mexicas also demanded a certain amount of number of sacrifices from subject states in which they controlled.
Other types of people put up for sacrifice included: corrupt judges, unsuccessful generals, careless public officials, and even people who accidentally entered forbidden areas of the royal palaces. Sacrfice Quetzalcoatl
& Huitzilopochtli Can also be referred to as Mexica
It is important to know that much of the Aztecs success as a civilization came from principles of previous peoples and civilizations.
1300 Nahuatl-speaking people rise
Nahuatl-the language of both the Toltecs and Aztecs.
Setteled on the shores of and islands of Lake Texoco in the central valley of Mexico.

Tenochitlan and Tlatelo twin cities. Aztecs The City of Tenochtitlan Sacrifice Aztecs Aztecs As of 1500 the city had about 250,000 people making it one of the largest cities in the world. (At this time, no European country could claim a population even half this size.)
The total Aztec empire had been estimated at 5 million inhabitants, with the total population of Mesoamerica between 20 and 30 million Population War heroes
Warriors
Macehualtin
Tlamaitl
Slaves Social Distinctions among Aztecs Flower Wars-metaphor associated with warfare in Mexica culture.


The objective of the flower wars was to capture warriors from the other side, not to kill them. Flower Wars Sacrifice This nourishment came by means of human blood and thus is how sacrifice within the Aztec society came about.
Who were the victims?
-Most victims were captives, for the Aztecs controlled their growing empire this way.
The Mexicas also demanded a certain amount of number of sacrifices from subject states in which they controlled.
Other types of people put up for sacrifice included: corrupt judges, unsuccessful generals, careless public officials, and even people who accidentally entered forbidden areas of the royal palaces. Sacrfice Can also be referred to as Mexica
It is important to know that much of the Aztecs success as a civilization came from principles of previous peoples and civilizations.
1300 Nahuatl-speaking people rise
Nahuatl-the language of both the Toltecs and Aztecs.
Setteled on the shores of and islands of Lake Texoco in the central valley of Mexico.

Tenochitlan and Tlatelo twin cities. Aztecs Tradespeople/merchants offered a variety of things.
Foods, delicate gold’s and silvers, clothes, wood, herbs for seasoning, honey, sweets, and even smoking tobacco.
The great temple of Huitzilopochtli also was in the market square.
Massive structure, looked at by the people in admiration and respect.
(Cortes and the Spanish couldn’t believe the city they were witnessing upon arrival. According to Corte’s companions, “ The great towns and temples and building rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.. Indeed, some of our soldiers asked whether or not it was all a dream. Markets Originally built on salt marshes.
4 great causeways that connected it to the mainland.
Openings in the causeways allowed for boats to pass through.
Protected by stone and adobe walls (similar to medieval Constantinople) highly defensible.
Large aqueduct carried pure water from distant springs.
Streets and canals opened into public squares and market places. City Layout Polytheistic people.
Quetzalcoatl
Revered by Mexicas as a creator deity and a source of knowledge. Pictured as a feathered serpent god.
2. Huitzilopochtli
Young-warrior god whose name translate as “Blue Humming Bird of the South”
Symbolized the sun blazing at high noon.
According to the Mexias, the sun had to keep moving in itd orbit to avoid having darkness take over the world.
To keep it moving, Aztecs believed the sun needed precious nourishment. Religion and War The City of Tenochtitlan Quetzalcoatl
& Huitzilopochtli Aztecs This nourishment came by means of human blood and thus is how sacrifice within the Aztec society came about.
Who were the victims?
-Most victims were captives, for the Aztecs controlled their growing empire this way.
The Mexicas also demanded a certain amount of number of sacrifices from subject states in which they controlled.
Other types of people put up for sacrifice included: corrupt judges, unsuccessful generals, careless public officials, and even people who accidentally entered forbidden areas of the royal palaces. Sacrfice Polytheistic people.
Quetzalcoatl
Revered by Mexicas as a creator deity and a source of knowledge. Pictured as a feathered serpent god.
2. Huitzilopochtli
Young-warrior god whose name translate as “Blue Humming Bird of the South”
Symbolized the sun blazing at high noon.
According to the Mexias, the sun had to keep moving in itd orbit to avoid having darkness take over the world.
To keep it moving, Aztecs believed the sun needed precious nourishment. Religion and War Aztecs Tradespeople/merchants offered a variety of things.
Foods, delicate gold’s and silvers, clothes, wood, herbs for seasoning, honey, sweets, and even smoking tobacco.
The great temple of Huitzilopochtli also was in the market square.
Massive structure, looked at by the people in admiration and respect.
(Cortes and the Spanish couldn’t believe the city they were witnessing upon arrival. According to Corte’s companions, “ The great towns and temples and building rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.. Indeed, some of our soldiers asked whether or not it was all a dream. Markets Originally built on salt marshes.
4 great causeways that connected it to the mainland.
Openings in the causeways allowed for boats to pass through.
Protected by stone and adobe walls (similar to medieval Constantinople) highly defensible.
Large aqueduct carried pure water from distant springs.
Streets and canals opened into public squares and market places. City Layout As of 1500 the city had about 250,000 people making it one of the largest cities in the world. (At this time, no European country could claim a population even half this size.)
The total Aztec empire had been estimated at 5 million inhabitants, with the total population of Mesoamerica between 20 and 30 million Population War heroes
Warriors
Macehualtin
Tlamaitl
Slaves Social Distinctions among Aztecs Flower Wars-metaphor associated with warfare in Mexica culture.


The objective of the flower wars was to capture warriors from the other side, not to kill them. Flower Wars Sacrifice Can also be referred to as Mexica
It is important to know that much of the Aztecs success as a civilization came from principles of previous peoples and civilizations.
1300 Nahuatl-speaking people rise
Nahuatl-the language of both the Toltecs and Aztecs.
Setteled on the shores of and islands of Lake Texoco in the central valley of Mexico.

Tenochitlan and Tlatelo twin cities. Aztecs The City of Tenochtitlan Quetzalcoatl
& Huitzilopochtli Aztecs As of 1500 the city had about 250,000 people making it one of the largest cities in the world. (At this time, no European country could claim a population even half this size.)
The total Aztec empire had been estimated at 5 million inhabitants, with the total population of Mesoamerica between 20 and 30 million Population Flower Wars-metaphor associated with warfare in Mexica culture.


The objective of the flower wars was to capture warriors from the other side, not to kill them. Flower Wars Tradespeople/merchants offered a variety of things.
Foods, delicate gold’s and silvers, clothes, wood, herbs for seasoning, honey, sweets, and even smoking tobacco.
The great temple of Huitzilopochtli also was in the market square.
Massive structure, looked at by the people in admiration and respect.
(Cortes and the Spanish couldn’t believe the city they were witnessing upon arrival. According to Corte’s companions, “ The great towns and temples and building rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.. Indeed, some of our soldiers asked whether or not it was all a dream. Markets Originally built on salt marshes.
4 great causeways that connected it to the mainland.
Openings in the causeways allowed for boats to pass through.
Protected by stone and adobe walls (similar to medieval Constantinople) highly defensible.
Large aqueduct carried pure water from distant springs.
Streets and canals opened into public squares and market places. City Layout War heroes
Warriors
Macehualtin
Tlamaitl
Slaves Social Distinctions among Aztecs Sacrifice This nourishment came by means of human blood and thus is how sacrifice within the Aztec society came about.
Who were the victims?
-Most victims were captives, for the Aztecs controlled their growing empire this way.
The Mexicas also demanded a certain amount of number of sacrifices from subject states in which they controlled.
Other types of people put up for sacrifice included: corrupt judges, unsuccessful generals, careless public officials, and even people who accidentally entered forbidden areas of the royal palaces. Sacrfice Quetzalcoatl
& Huitzilopochtli Polytheistic people.
Quetzalcoatl
Revered by Mexicas as a creator deity and a source of knowledge. Pictured as a feathered serpent god.
2. Huitzilopochtli
Young-warrior god whose name translate as “Blue Humming Bird of the South”
Symbolized the sun blazing at high noon.
According to the Mexias, the sun had to keep moving in itd orbit to avoid having darkness take over the world.
To keep it moving, Aztecs believed the sun needed precious nourishment. Religion and War Can also be referred to as Mexica
It is important to know that much of the Aztecs success as a civilization came from principles of previous peoples and civilizations.
1300 Nahuatl-speaking people rise
Nahuatl-the language of both the Toltecs and Aztecs.
Setteled on the shores of and islands of Lake Texoco in the central valley of Mexico.

Tenochitlan and Tlatelo twin cities. Aztecs The City of Tenochtitlan Originally built on salt marshes.
4 great causeways that connected it to the mainland.
Openings in the causeways allowed for boats to pass through.
Protected by stone and adobe walls (similar to medieval Constantinople) highly defensible.
Large aqueduct carried pure water from distant springs.
Streets and canals opened into public squares and market places. City Layout Sacrifice Aztecs Tradespeople/merchants offered a variety of things.
Foods, delicate gold’s and silvers, clothes, wood, herbs for seasoning, honey, sweets, and even smoking tobacco.
The great temple of Huitzilopochtli also was in the market square.
Massive structure, looked at by the people in admiration and respect.
(Cortes and the Spanish couldn’t believe the city they were witnessing upon arrival. According to Corte’s companions, “ The great towns and temples and building rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.. Indeed, some of our soldiers asked whether or not it was all a dream. Markets As of 1500 the city had about 250,000 people making it one of the largest cities in the world. (At this time, no European country could claim a population even half this size.)
The total Aztec empire had been estimated at 5 million inhabitants, with the total population of Mesoamerica between 20 and 30 million Population War heroes
Warriors
Macehualtin
Tlamaitl
Slaves Social Distinctions among Aztecs Flower Wars-metaphor associated with warfare in Mexica culture.


The objective of the flower wars was to capture warriors from the other side, not to kill them. Flower Wars This nourishment came by means of human blood and thus is how sacrifice within the Aztec society came about.
Who were the victims?
-Most victims were captives, for the Aztecs controlled their growing empire this way.
The Mexicas also demanded a certain amount of number of sacrifices from subject states in which they controlled.
Other types of people put up for sacrifice included: corrupt judges, unsuccessful generals, careless public officials, and even people who accidentally entered forbidden areas of the royal palaces. Sacrfice Polytheistic people.
Quetzalcoatl
Revered by Mexicas as a creator deity and a source of knowledge. Pictured as a feathered serpent god.
2. Huitzilopochtli
Young-warrior god whose name translate as “Blue Humming Bird of the South”
Symbolized the sun blazing at high noon.
According to the Mexias, the sun had to keep moving in itd orbit to avoid having darkness take over the world.
To keep it moving, Aztecs believed the sun needed precious nourishment. Religion and War Can also be referred to as Mexica
It is important to know that much of the Aztecs success as a civilization came from principles of previous peoples and civilizations.
1300 Nahuatl-speaking people rise
Nahuatl-the language of both the Toltecs and Aztecs.
Setteled on the shores of and islands of Lake Texoco in the central valley of Mexico.

Tenochitlan and Tlatelo twin cities. Aztecs The City of Tenochtitlan Quetzalcoatl
& Huitzilopochtli THE INCAS *The Chavin civilization* Before the Incas... *The Moche civilization* (built the earliest cities in the Andes around 1200 B.C.E.) (thrived in a 250 mile stretch along the northern coast of Peru between 100 & 800 C.E.) Who were the
Incas? Believed their ruler descended from the sun-god & the health and prosperity of the state depended on him QUECHUA: (Still spoken by most Peruvians today!) Deemed official Inca language by Pachacuti. Mounds, Towns, & Trade in North and South America EARLY SOCIETIES Caral, Peru Who were they? Aztecs Quetzalcoatl
(creator deity)
Huitzilopochtli
(symbolized sun) Polytheistic People Offered up humans to feed the sun and provide nourishment.
Believe human blood nurtured the sun Sacrifice Aztecs
Who were they and where did they come from? Social Distinctions 1. War heroes
2. Warriors
3.Macehualtin
4.Tlamaitl
5.Slaves 250 million people
1500 b.c.-greater population than any European country Population Built on salt marshes
4 great causeways connecting to mainland
Large aqueducts
Adobe walls City Layout Tradespeople/merchants offered a variety of goods
Great Temple of Huitzilopochtli Markets Norte Chico Region Shelly, Crystal, Jonathan, Sean & Zeus Inca beliefs about religion, rulers & death Chavin Statue of Pachacuti Hopewell Mounds Mississippi Mounds Teotihuacan and the Toltecs Maya Society (250-900 AD) Advanced Agriculture Common Language Knowledge of Astrology, Math, Religion, Philosophy-destroyed
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