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Emma Duffy

on 19 April 2013

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Transcript of enterprise

Enterprise Research questions Stereotyping Definition -

what's been said... Methodology (draft) Aims and Purpose

- To identify whether children within my own infant placement class hold any gender-stereotypical views with relation to toys, if so what are these views.

- To explore and discuss these views with the children, trying to install a more thoughtful, less judgemental attitude.

-To establish whether engaging in enterprise-type activities can change or widen children’s opinions about the type of toys they would play with. Using an enterprise context to explore gender-stereotypical views that children may hold defining enterprise

what's been said... "Enterprise in education has different meanings for different people.
It can be defined as encompassing a wide range of enterprising skills and attitudes". (Paterson, 2009:36)

... some definitions focus on careers and business, Paterson argues that the increasingly important definition for schools is related to the "development of personal, transferable or life skills" (Paterson, 2009:36)

Brownlow et al. (2004) argue that there seems to be an overall 'general' definition of enterprise in education, however this is still open to interpretation, there is no clear meaning as of yet.

Further literature refer to the 'on-going issue of definition' and urge that a clear defintion is needed to improve standards of enterprise within schools (Semple, 2007; Carey & Naudin, 2006; HMIE 2004). Why Has both professional and personal value.
Elective module - inspired
Gap in own knowledge - interested
Relevant to Scottish Education policies
Gap in research, try to merge both within my project... Sam is 5 years old, Sam has brown hair and green eyes and is of average height for their age. Sam lives with their mum, dad and 2 siblings. Sam's favourite colour is red, and Sam loves constructing with Lego and playing football. At halloween this year, Sam dressed up as a power ranger because it is their favourite TV show.

- The name 'Sam' was chosen specifically as it could apply to both genders.

- No use of the words he/she etc. as these would help determine the child's gender.

- Why might one assume Sam is of a particular gender?

- What are the key words in the text, what do these words say about Sam? Initial thoughts? ‘Enterprise’ can be difficult to define. "spontaneous gender stereotyping"
(Banse, et al. 2010) a set of beliefs about attributes and behaviours of members of a social category (Hamilton & Trolier, 1986; Stangor & Shaller, 1996; Sani et al. 2003) Oxford Dictionary (2012) definition of stereotype: "a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing:

eg. the stereotype of the woman as the carer" (noun) 1. To what extent do children of infant stage hold gender-stereotypical views?

2. What are the views of children in relation to gender-specific toys?

3. Can participation in an enterprise-type activity help children think outside the 'norm' about gender-specific toys? Multitude of ideas, attitudes, behaviours, and beliefs that he or she is exposed to... A further reinforcement of acceptable and appropriate behaviour is shown to children through the media (Witt, S. 1997) Cultural definitions of ‘appropriate’ roles, attitudes and behaviours for women and men are constantly evolving... Service providers, as well as policy makers, inevitably play an important role in shaping cultural change (or, conversely, maintaining stereotypes) through their practices. (Children In Scotland, 2010:6)

Education has a potentially important role to play in challenging gender stereotypes (Children in Scotland, 2010:11) Princess stereotype force-fed to hungry little girls: jobless, opinion less and there to be decorative.

The girls' T-shirt reads Born To Be a Princess. The T-shirt for boys? Born To Rule. One has to wonder what kind of gender stereotyping dinosaur is in charge of the merchandising at one of the UK's most prolific brands.

The blue and pink labelling is relatively recent. Before the 1940s blue was deemed a delicate colour suited to dainty wee ladies while pink was a stronger colour ideal for boys. The media, a different perspective... Some argue that stereotypes are a product of the home, formed before a child starts school. Many argue that such knowledge is directly passed on by the parents and the society in which a child lives ultimately affects the views a child has. Research concludes that generally stereotype knowledge is acquired early in childhood, and is something which is relatively difficult to change. (Devine, 1989; Wilson, Lindsey & Schooler, 2000; Banse et al. 2010).

By the age of three years, children are already distinguishing between both genders, and will normally associate specific toys more with one particular gender than the other, eg. cars for boys and dolls for girls. (Aubry et al.,1999; Banse et., al 2010; Trautner et al., 2005)

As children develop, normally after the ages of 5 children show the abilty to question certain gender stereotypes, showing increased stereotype flexibility. (Serbin & Sprafkin, 1986; Banse et. al 2010; Trautner et al. 2005).

"For instance, older children admit that although trucks are more commonly associated with boys, girls can play with trucks as well".
(Banse et al., 2010 : 298) "By the time children enter elementary school, they have extensive knowledge about what objects, activities, and traits are linked to being male or female". Gender stereotype knowledge 5 year olds 8 year olds

Common objects 78.5 % 88.7%

Toys 98.5% 99.7%

Gender stereotype flexibility
(could they be flexible
with their answers) 5 year olds 8 year olds

Common objects 33.8 % 65.8%

Toys 14.5% 36.5% Table extracted from Banse et al. (2010) Page 303 Exploring gender roles, attitudes and expectations can be tied into a wide range of subject areas and learning objectives (Children in Scotland 2010:12)
Friday 25 May 2012
Catriona Stewart Enforcing gender stereotypes is simply child's play HERALD SCOTLAND Relevant to my career choice as a Primary teacher... Primary teaching generally perceived as an appropriate career for females but not for males (Johnstone et al. 1999; Gray & Leith ; 2004) specifically 'gender-stereotyping' we can make a difference Stereotype knowledge development (Trautner et al 2005: 365) Origin? Despite being low on their list of priorities (57%), teachers generally agreed that they had a responsibility to challenge stereotypes (70%)
(Gray & Leith; 2004:13) (Singh, 1998; Gray & Leith; 2004 ; Yeoman, 1999; Francis, 2000) The aims of this research project are: This project will look to use enterprise as a context for exploring stereotypical views that children may hold.

Through an empirical based research project I hope to gain insight into a child’s point of view in relation to gender-stereotyping. Using toys, I hope to highlight, explore and discuss the topic of ‘gender-specific’ toys with the children. Purpose: Design Challenge set for children
Children will present their designed toys with explaination
Work with a focus group
Interview randomly chosen children
Whole Class lessons According to Carey & Matlay (2011) Enterprise in education has been developing rapidly over the last 15 years. "Determined to Succeed" is one of a number of initiatives introduced by the Scottish Government who invested £42 million into the project over 3 years.

The project aimed to promote inclusion, address skills shortages, prepare people for the world of work and provide for flexibility within the school curriculum. Hoping to promote enterprise acitivity in schools. Enterprise in Education has close links with a Curriculum for Excellence (2004) in the shared goal of "Skills for learning, life and work" Further documents such as the "Journey to Excellence" support Enterprise in Education. References: Banse, R,. Gawronski, B., Rebetez, C., Gutt, H., & Morton, B. (2010). The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in childhood: relations to stereotype knowledge and stereotype flexibility. Developmental Science, 13(2). pp-298-306. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Brownlow, L., Connor, M., Deuchar, R., Forster, M., & Weir, D. (2004). Schools Enterprise Programme Research Project: The Educational and Economic Benefits of Enterprise Education. SEP.

Carey, C., & Naudin, A. (2006). Enterprise Curriculum for Creative Industries students: An exploration of current attitudes and issues. Education and Training, (48). pp- 518-531.

Carey, C., & Matlay, H. (2011) Emergent issues in enterprise education: the educator's perspective. Industry and Higher Education, 25(6). pp 441-450 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
Children in Scotland (2010). Making the Gender Equality Duty Real for Children,Young People and their Fathers ‘Breaking-down Stereotypes’ – publication retrieved via: http://www.childreninscotland.org.uk/docs/GEDNEWSLETTEROCT2010v4.pdf

Devine, P.G.(1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: their automatic and controlled components.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (56) pp-5–18.

Francis, B. (2000). Boys, girls, and achievement. Addressing the classroom issues. London: Routledge Falmer.

Gray, C., & Leith, H. (2004). Perpetuating gender stereotypes in the classroom: a teacher perspective. Educational Studies, 30(1). pp- 3-17. Carfax Publishing- Taylor and Francis group.

Johnston, J., McKeown, E., Cowan, P., McClune, B., & McEwen, A. (1999). What science engenders: boys, girls and the teaching and learning of primary science (Equal Opportunities Commission for Northern Ireland). Oxford Dictionary (2012). Oxford: Oxford University Press

Paterson, M. (2009). Are Scottish primary schools becoming more enterprising? Scottish Educational Review, 41 (1). pp. 36-50. University of Strathclyde.

Sani, F., Bennett, M., Mullally, S., & MacPherson, J. (2003). On the assumption of fixity in children's stereotypes: a reappraisal. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, (99). pp- 113–124.

Scottish Executive (2004). A Curriculum for Excellence. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.

Semple, S. (2007). Enterprise Education in Schools in the Five Countries. Glasgow: Centre for Studies in Enterprise, Career Development and Work, University of Strathclyde.

Serbin, L.A., & Sprafkin, C.(1986).The salience of gender and the process of sex typing in three- to seven-years old children. Child Development, (57). pp-1188–1199.

Singh, M. (1998). Gender issues in the language classroom. Eric Clearing House on Reading, English and Communication Digest, (136).

Stewart, C. (2012). Enforcing gender stereotypes is simply child's play. Herald Scotland. Published on Friday 25th May 2012

Trautner, H., Rubleb, D., Cyphersb, L., Kirstena, B., Behrendta, R., & Hartmanna, P. (2005). Rigidity and Flexibility of Gender Stereotypes in Childhood: Developmental or Differential? Infant and Child Development, (14). pp-365–381.

Wilson, T.D.,Lindsey, S., &Schooler, T.Y.(2000).A model of dual attitudes.Psychological Review,(107). pp-101–126.

Witt, S. (1997). Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles. Adolescence (Summer). Ohio:University of Akron School of Home Economics and Family Ecology. Retrieved via: http://gozips.uakron.edu/~susan8/parinf.htm

Yeoman, E. (1999). How does it get into my imagination?: elementary school children’s inter-textual knowledge and gendered storylines, Gender and Education, 11(4). pp-427–440.
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