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Michael Doyle: Liberalism and World Politics

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Alexandra U.

on 8 May 2014

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Transcript of Michael Doyle: Liberalism and World Politics

Michael Doyle:
Liberalism and World Politics

in: American Political Science Review 80 (1986)
Structure
1. Doyle's Definition of Liberalism
2. Liberal Pacifism - Joseph Schumpeter
3. Liberal Imperialism - Niccolò Machiavelli
5. Conclusion
4. Liberal Internationalism - Immanuel Kant
1
. judicial equality + "basic rights"
2
. legislative assembly authorised by the people
3
. key dimension: right to own property
4
. a largely market-driven system of economic exchange
Doyle's four-dimensional definition of liberalism
definition of imperialism
"objectless disposition on the part of a state to unlimited forcible expansion"
war machine
warlike instincts
export monopolism
these three sources
each an
atavism
of absolute monarchies
imperialistic wars are aimless
liberal peace
democracy
capitalism
power to the people
Joseph Schumpeter: Liberal Pacifism
discrepancy between the warlike history of liberal states and Schumpeter's pacifistic theory
three extreme assumptions
materialistic monism
: no explanation of non-material reasons for war
homogeneity of the political life of individual
presumption: ruling makes no difference
homogeneity of world politics
free trade
liberty
Niccolò Machiavelli: Liberal Imperialism
secures survival of a state
results from two factors
"disunion"
the competition and necessity for compromise among senate, consuls and the people
popular veto:
secures the states liberties
liberty
Veto
"We seek to rule or, at least, to avoid being oppressed."
"We are lovers of glory!"
Immanuel Kant: Liberal Internationalism
two legacies of modern liberalism
1) pacification among liberal states
2) international imprudence
first legacy: peaceful restraint among liberal states
special pacification among liberal states
(i.e. NATO)
separate peace: can be maintained on the long term among liberals
increase in the number of liberal states
possibility of global peace
second legacy: international imprudence
liberal
liberal
non-liberal
peaceful restraint
only
works among liberal states
uncountable wars against non-liberal states
reasons: conflict of prestige, mutual suspicions, miscalculations, ...
Kant's Three Definitive Articles
1) "The Civil Constitution of every State shall be Republican"
2) "The Right of Nations shall be based on a Federation of States"
3) "Cosmopolitan Right shall be limited to the Conditions of Universal Hospitality"
republican constitution
juridical freedom
free citizens
dependent upon common legislation
legal equality (equal subjects)
basis
: representative government (+ separation of powers)
pacification federation
or
union
(foedus pacificum)
: each member's rights and freedom will be maintained
peace
not formally peace treaty, rather a peace zone
possibility of moving across borders and trading with natives
essential because of the development of a world community
1st step: law of civil society
2nd step: law of nations
3rd step: world citizenship
sources of the three definitive articles
1)
constitutional
source:
republican government
"asocial sociability"
2)
international
source:
guarantee of respect, agreement
peace
3)
cosmopolitan
source
the international market's removal of difficult decisions of production and distribution from the direct sphere of state policy
capitalism + democracy =
peace

development of these two forces
imperialism
unwarlike tendencies
democratized, individualized and rationalized people
explanation of liberal pacifism:
war profiteers according to Schumpeter
imperialists & military aristocrats
democracies
no democracy
pursues minority interests
tolerates huge war costs
result
of free trade and easy access to goods
no class gains from war
criticism of Kant's theory
too idealistic in terms of ethical behavior cooperation among states
problem: complex situations
hospitality not always possible
(i.e. towards terrorist groups)
unclear intentions
self-interest and anarchy are inevitable
today's friend might be tomorrow's enemy
Conclusion
Kant: Liberal Internationalism
Schumpeter: Liberal Pacifism
Machiavelli: Liberal Imperialism
aggressive interactions with non-liberal states
pacifism and interaction
all theorists represent distinct concepts of human nature + lived in different ages
specific world views
development of various liberal theories
Thank you for your attention
republic
best form of state
characteristics
social equality
popular liberty
political participation
Full transcript