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Michael Doyle: Liberalism and World Politics
Transcript of Michael Doyle: Liberalism and World Politics
Liberalism and World Politics
in: American Political Science Review 80 (1986)
1. Doyle's Definition of Liberalism
2. Liberal Pacifism - Joseph Schumpeter
3. Liberal Imperialism - Niccolò Machiavelli
4. Liberal Internationalism - Immanuel Kant
. judicial equality + "basic rights"
. legislative assembly authorised by the people
. key dimension: right to own property
. a largely market-driven system of economic exchange
Doyle's four-dimensional definition of liberalism
definition of imperialism
"objectless disposition on the part of a state to unlimited forcible expansion"
these three sources
of absolute monarchies
imperialistic wars are aimless
power to the people
Joseph Schumpeter: Liberal Pacifism
discrepancy between the warlike history of liberal states and Schumpeter's pacifistic theory
three extreme assumptions
: no explanation of non-material reasons for war
homogeneity of the political life of individual
presumption: ruling makes no difference
homogeneity of world politics
Niccolò Machiavelli: Liberal Imperialism
secures survival of a state
results from two factors
the competition and necessity for compromise among senate, consuls and the people
secures the states liberties
"We seek to rule or, at least, to avoid being oppressed."
"We are lovers of glory!"
Immanuel Kant: Liberal Internationalism
two legacies of modern liberalism
1) pacification among liberal states
2) international imprudence
first legacy: peaceful restraint among liberal states
special pacification among liberal states
separate peace: can be maintained on the long term among liberals
increase in the number of liberal states
possibility of global peace
second legacy: international imprudence
works among liberal states
uncountable wars against non-liberal states
reasons: conflict of prestige, mutual suspicions, miscalculations, ...
Kant's Three Definitive Articles
1) "The Civil Constitution of every State shall be Republican"
2) "The Right of Nations shall be based on a Federation of States"
3) "Cosmopolitan Right shall be limited to the Conditions of Universal Hospitality"
dependent upon common legislation
legal equality (equal subjects)
: representative government (+ separation of powers)
: each member's rights and freedom will be maintained
not formally peace treaty, rather a peace zone
possibility of moving across borders and trading with natives
essential because of the development of a world community
1st step: law of civil society
2nd step: law of nations
3rd step: world citizenship
sources of the three definitive articles
guarantee of respect, agreement
the international market's removal of difficult decisions of production and distribution from the direct sphere of state policy
capitalism + democracy =
development of these two forces
democratized, individualized and rationalized people
explanation of liberal pacifism:
war profiteers according to Schumpeter
imperialists & military aristocrats
pursues minority interests
tolerates huge war costs
of free trade and easy access to goods
no class gains from war
criticism of Kant's theory
too idealistic in terms of ethical behavior cooperation among states
problem: complex situations
hospitality not always possible
(i.e. towards terrorist groups)
self-interest and anarchy are inevitable
today's friend might be tomorrow's enemy
Kant: Liberal Internationalism
Schumpeter: Liberal Pacifism
Machiavelli: Liberal Imperialism
aggressive interactions with non-liberal states
pacifism and interaction
all theorists represent distinct concepts of human nature + lived in different ages
specific world views
development of various liberal theories
Thank you for your attention
best form of state