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Earth and Space Weathering and erosion

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jen nader

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of Earth and Space Weathering and erosion

Chapter 3
Weathering and Erosion
Erosion-removing earth material from their original site through transport
Weathering_The process at or near the Earth's
surface that cause rocks and minerals to break down
1. Mechanical-process that breaks a rock or mineral into smaller pieces without altering its composition (physical weathering)
2. Chemical Weathering-process that changes the chemical composition of rocks and minerals
2 types of weathering
frost wedging
thermal expansion and contraction
mechanical exfoliation
abrasion (wind and water)
plants and animals
Mechanical weathering agents
caused by expansion and contraction
causes layers of the rock to "peel away" from the surface
dissolving (dissolution)
Chemical Weathering
plants and animal waste
mineral composition
Factors in chemical weathering
regolith-small rock and mineral fragments (located at the bottom of the soil layer
Soil-organic matter mixed with weathered product
Weathering produces regolith
Transport agents
As soil forms it develops separate layers called horizons.
Soil Horizons
Each horizon is different. A cross section
of the soil horizon is called a profile
The uppermost layer is the "A" horizon.
the 'A' horizon is dark colored and bacteria can be found here.
Mature soil-soil that has developed 3 layers
-it takes thousands of years for soil to develop
topsoil-humus and other organic materials
A horizon
soil layers that are recently formed
immature because there hasn't been enough time for all three layers to form. Soil in the northern regions where glaciation occurs is usually immature
Immature soil
water soaks int he ground and brings in minerals from the A layer and adds to the 2nd layer. This is leaching. The B horizon sits below the A horizon and is made of clay and some hummus.
B horizon
This is subsoil-it is formed slowly
The C horizon is the third layer of soil. It is partially weathered rock. It is similar to the parent material. Below this layer you find the regolith
C horizon
Soil layers
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