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Construct solid walling incorporating piers and arches

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Andrew Atkin

on 26 January 2016

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Transcript of Construct solid walling incorporating piers and arches

Construct Solid Walling Incorporating Piers and Arches
LO1/2: Know how to and be able to prepare for constructing solid walling
Learning outcomes
What is solid walling
Why do we use solid walling
What benefits does solid walling have
what types of projects require solid walls and why

The problem was that the solid walls were capable of supporting the roof
and floors, but because of poor workmanship they often failed on the
other two purposes. Even larger and more expensive buildings had major
problems with water penetration.
The walls became damp and timbers rotted on the floors and roof spaces. The lack of insulation meant that in poor weather the buildings were very cold and draughty. As a result, cavity walls became more popular and in time insulation was added to the cavity.
However, there are benefits to solid walling. The depth of wall offers
its own insulation and it keeps the property cool in warm weather. The
fact that the load is spread makes the whole structure stronger, so
foundations are less likely to fail.
The drawback, however, is that solid wall construction is expensive.
Additional, costly problems still need to be addressed, including the
foundations and the damp-proof course. As a result it is not common to construct buildings using solid walling.
Potential hazards
Solid walling?
Traditional solid walling was the most popular construction method
for buildings until the 1920s. The walls had a single solid wall around
500 mm thick. The walls would:
support the roof
support the upper floors
keep the building warm
prevent water from getting into the building.
In the latter part of the 19th century a number of houses were built with cavity walls. It was not, however, until the 1920s that this became the accepted form of construction.

Cavity walls were cheaper to build than their solid wall counterparts. In addition they offer improved thermal insulation and better weather protection. Most walls comprised two half-brick leaves with a 50mm cavity. The two halves of the wall were tied at regular intervals with steel or wrought iron wall ties.
The external leaf of brickwork was laid in facing bricks, the internal leaf in commons. A few early cavity walls had an external leaf one brick thick and, in some early forms of construction, the DPC ran right across the cavity.
Cavity walls were commonly built with no insulation. It was not until the 1970s that most builders started to insulate the cavity. It became compulsory in the 1990s under the new revised building regulations
Solid walling only works if it is bonded correctly
These bonds generally consist of half lap bonds and quarter lap bonds
There are several different types of bonds used
different types of bonds are used for strength and decorative purposes
English Bond
This is considered the strongest bond as it is tied together every other course. Common uses include garden walling, retaining walling and underground walls i.e. manholes
English bond in action
Flemish Bond
Flemish Bond Brickwork was introduced in the 17th century not just strength, but a great aesthetic look to buildings. This bond was more often used on private buildings.
Flemish Bond
English garden Wall Bond
Three rows of stretchers to one row of headers. This is very rarely found on buildings outside the north, where it is abundant and particularly prevalent on the east coast. It was used from the late 18th century onwards, and was also used for garden walls.
English Garden wall Bond
Flemish Garden wall Bond
Three stretchers to one header in each row. This has in fact rarely been historically used on garden walls. It is most common in West Sussex and Hampshire where it
may be found on up to 10% of historic buildings.
Also know as Sussex bond
Flemish Garden Wall bond
Rat Trap Bond
This rare bond was used in the early to mid 19th century as a cheap form of brickwork
by laying the bricks on edge.
Header Bond
Header bond was used for display glazed headers, curved walls or to give the
impression of strength

Like all construction projects solid walling requires lots of relevant information
Setting out procedures
Just like the previous uint solid walling requires setting out correctly
in today's construction solid walling is mainly used for garden walls, boundary walls, manholes and sometimes steps. Its important to remember that the basic principals for setting out must be followed.
Information such as
the use of a building line may be required
Curved walling especially in boundary walls and garden walling will need a considerable amount of time set aside to set out
Setting out
setting out and constructing curved walling requires a lot of thought, we will visit this towards the end of the unit
LO3: Know how to set out to construct solid walling to the given specification
LO4/5: Know how to and be able to construct solid walling to the given specification
LO6/7: Know how to and be able to construct isolated and attached piers and arches to the given specification
Its was during the inner war years that cavity walling started to become the main type of wall construction.
Cavity walling vs solid walling
World War 1
1914 - 1918
World War 2
1939 - 1945
Cavity walling began to be used in London during the rebuilding of the city and over time became the main type of wall construction used.
The building booms of the 20s 30s and 40s helped cement cavity walling into modern day construction
Curved Brickwork
Battered Walling
Key Sections
Solid walling
Retaining walls
Curved walling
Battered brickwork
Risk assessments
There are several different types of drawings available to bricklayers
In todays construction solid walling is used for garden walls, retaining walls and underground walls
Types of plans used
Solid walling
What you have to remember is that solid walling doesn't always have to be constructed out of bricks
Most solid walls will incorporate concrete and steel for added strength
Inner years
Main types
Main types
Solid Walling Finishes
Can you name any?
Solid Walling Finishes
So why do we finish walls off?

Pier Durability
It’s vital when constructing piers to ensure they are constructed correctly
This means deciding/choosing methods to strengthen piers
Failure to do so will generally result in piers both attached and isolating failing
Failed Piers
Piers often fail because?
Too much weigth
Hollow construction
Lack of support
Pier strength
How can you strengthen a brick pillar?
Steel hangers
There are two main types of arch ways we are going to look at in this unit
Semi circular
We will also be looking at the difference between rough ring arches and axed arches
Arch history
True arches, as opposed to corbel arches, were known by a number of civilizations in the Ancient East, but their use was infrequent and mostly confined to underground structures such as drains where the problem of lateral thrust is greatly diminished. A rare exception is the Bronze Age arched city gate of Ashkelon (modern day Israel), dating to ca. 1850 B.C
The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscans, refined it and were the first builders to tap its full potential for above ground buildings:

The Romans were the first builders in Europe, perhaps the first in the world, fully to appreciate the advantages of the arch, the vault and the dome.

How arches work
Arches work by dissipating the forces from above equally down to the side in to the pillars/walls
Before the use of steel, masonry arches were seen as the only way to bridge large openings
Technical Drawings
In todays session we will be working in pairs to complete a full scale technical arch drawing
Today we will focus on segmental axed arches
Watch the demonstration ready to complete yours
Rough Ring Arches
Axed Arches
The definition rough ring simply means that you construct an arch using standard bricks. The mortar joints mimic the curve, this means they become wedged shaped. Rough ring arches are generally used for internal work but can be seen in some external brick/stone walls
The definition axed arch simply means that the bricks or masonry used to construct the arch way are cut in the shape of a wedge/axe. The correct terminology for the cut bricks is voussoir, there are many different terms used in archways of which you will learn through the technical drawing phase.
Technical Drawings
Before we start to draw our first full scale arch we need to understand the simple terms used in circles and geometry
CSA L20cc72
Retaining walls
What are retaining walls?
Where do we use retaining walls?
Why do we use retaining walls?
What type of preparations do you need to make/consider before you start constructing a retaining wall
Use the sheets provided to give your detailed answer
Key Prep work
Foundations ?
Subsoil type?
Why is subsoil or the type of subsoil so important when deciding what type of retaining wall to use?
It’s all down to understanding the stress that the wall will be put under
This is known as finding the angle of repose
So what is the angle of repose
Angle of repose
The angle of repose is the set angle the land/subsoil will settle to, watch the demonstration to understand more
Materials used
What type of materials would you use in a retaining wall?
As you can see all different types of subsoil settle to a different angle, therefore its pivotal to understand the type of earth you need to retain, soil tests will be carried out by geo technicians
General types of retaining walls
Curved walling
Curved walling can be constructed in several ways
The most common way is to use standard bricks and create wedge shaped joints to give the impression of a curved wall
This type of curved wall construction is only suited to large radius curves
One other method using standard bricks to create a curved walls is to use header bond, as there are more joints to compensate for tight radius curves
Special Bricks
There are special bricks used in curved walling, these bricks are called radial bricks
Radial bricks require an extensive amount of time create a template
How could you create a template for a radial brick
Curved walling
Setting out
Creating a template
Watch the demonstration indicating how a standard curve would be set out on plan
From the setting out phase how do you think you could create both a timber template to construct the wall and a template for a radial brick
Setting out
When setting out you can follow a simple set of rules that allow you to create the perfect curve.
These rules are similar to how you set out an arch and rely on finding the centre or the striking point
Full transcript