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Transcript of 1929-1945
1. Black Tuesday (Stock Market Crash)-1929.
Black Tuesday refers to October 29, 1929, when panicked sellers traded nearly 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange (four times the normal volume at the time). Black Tuesday is often cited as the beginning of the Great Depression. This pandemic later spread to Canada. Black Tuesday is an example of decline for Canada because it meant the start of the Great Depression which led to high unemployment rates, debt, "untouchables", bankruptcy, homeless people etc. Many people lost their jobs and went into debt so they had to sell or give their assets to the government. It is significant because Black Tuesday is the biggest stock market crash known to man having severe consequences for a period of ten years.
5. Canada Declaring War on Germany-1939
In World war 1, Britain declared war so Canada was automatically at war. Now in World war 2, Canada had control over over its foreign policy, so we can decide if we want to go to war or not. Canada declared war as an independent country to stop Hitler and the spread of fascism in Europe. From a military perspective, Canada was not ready for war.They had only 8000 personnel in the army navy and air force combined. The is an example of progress and significant because Canada declared war as an independent country and not under Britain even though they supplied troops to Britain. Also, ended the great depression.
8. Women 1939-1945
In World War Two, women were being recruited into the armed forces. Women were replacing men in non-combat roles, allowing them to help at the front-lines. Later on August 1941, the Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) was formed to ensure the enlisting of thousands of women to armed forces. During this time of war, there were a lot of men absent from factories so the government encouraged women to work in production jobs. By 1944, around 439,000 were in service sectors. about 373,000 had manufacturing jobs. Women during this time worked in munitions, at home, farms, schools, hospitals etc. This is significant and example of progress because women were not seen as housewives anymore, they can help the with the war. Women had an very important roles such as doctors, nurses etc during the war. Also, they could enlist just like men compared to WW1 where they couldn't.
9. Japanese Internments-1942
After the bombings of Pearl Harbor and the battle of Hong Kong, Canada was suspicious of the japanese who lived in Canada. Canada later confiscated the Canadians of Japanese descent's rights and properties. They were given 24 hours to pack their belongings before they were shipped off to internment camps. If you were male and between the age of 18 to 45, you would be forced to go to these camps. The internees were forced to pay for the housing. Their belongings were sold for a fraction of its worth. When the war ended, Japanese Canadians were encouraged no leave Canada, but those who stayed weren't allowed in Canada until 1949. This is an example of decline because it meant the removal of the japanese culture from Canada and a lower immigration rate. Also, it is significant because it is the largest forced evacuation of people in Canadian history. More than 22,000 were evacuated.
10. Liberation of Holland-1945
After the victory of the Battle of Scheldt which cleared way for a final Allied advance into Germany, around 175,000 Canadians joined the Rhine Offensive. Canadian troops went into the Netherlands and drove Germans back to Northern Germany. Also, they liberated the Dutch towns. Whilst the Canadians were in the Netherlands, they noticed people were almost starving so they gave them food and water. A truce was negotiated with the Allies to provide relief for the citizens of the Netherlands. The Allies later emerged into Berlin. Later that month, Hitler committed suicide as the soviets entered the city. This is an example of progress because freeing the Netherlands led to the ending of world war two. Also, Canada showed how strong of a military force they were. This is significant because it was basically the last battle with the involvement of Canada to end the war.
6. Prisoners of war (Battle of Hong Kong)-1941
In the 18-day battle of Hong Kong, 2000 inexperienced Canadian troops were sent to join Britain to battle the Japanese in Hong Kong. The Japanese had an overwhelming 50,0000 troops which the Allied forces had to deal with. Canada had suffered a swift defeat in its first major battle of the war. Canadians died and 1685 were sent POW camps. They were imprisoned for three and a half years, they were beaten, forced labour in mines, shipyards, construction sites etc. About 260 Canadian soldiers had died of starvation, sickness or abuse. This is an example of decline because due to the harsh treatment by the Japanese, the veterans were left with physical and emotional traumas that would last a lifetime. An apology and some compensation cant fix what they had experienced and in Hong Kong. This is significant because we can understand the sacrifice of the soldiers who gave up their lives to make our better, Also, the terrible treatment of enemy soldiers.
When Prime Minister King declared war on Germany in 1939, he promised that there would be no overseas conscription. After witnessing the defeat of France to Nazi Germany, King introduced home conscription only which means joining defensive forces at home and jobs to contribute to the war but in 1942, King held an election to ask Canadians to release him from his pledge to allow conscription overseas. 70% canadians were in favor but 80% of Quebecers were against conscription.King said he would start conscription if necessary. By late 1944, Prime Minister King released 16,000 home conscripts for overseas military service.Only a few thousand entered combat. They were nicknamed "zombies" they didnt help much and were very lazy and cowardly. This is an example of progress because not many were forced compared to world war one. Only 69 home conscripts died compared to world war one's casualty rate. Significance is that Canada was desperate for soldiers and that Quebec wanted to keep their culture and not jeopardize it.
3. Rise of Alternative Political Parties-1930s
In the 1930s, the Liberal and Conservative party were failing to help during the great depression. So Canadians turned to new political parties. The Co-operative Common wealth Federation(CCF), Social Credit Party, Union Nationale and the Communist Party. Each had different benefits. The CCF party was offering crop insurance, medical services for all, employment insurance, pension plans etc. Union Nationale said that they would increase the minimum wage and have provincially owned hydroelectric systems. Social credit party was offering to give each Albertan $25 every month and the Communist party wanted everyone to share profits of their labour. This is an example of progress because the party who won the most votes, CCF, helped people during the Great Depression. Significance is that these parties were trying to get Canada back on their feet and some are still here to this day.
4. On-to-Ottawa Trek-1935
The On-to-Ottawa trek is where 1500 men who were attending the relief camps left to protest for higher wages and better working conditions. They jumped on freight trains to take their case to the prime minister in Ottawa. By June 1935, 2000 trekkers reached Regina, Saskatchewan. The government was determined to stop them there. This an example of progress because even though It appeared they didn't gain anything, in the 1935 federal election, Bennett's government was tossed out and the relief camps were closed. The significance is that single Canadian men took a stand and removed Bennett's government and his harsh relief camps.
2. Relief camps-1932
During the Great Depression, the federal government sanctioned the creation of a system of unemployment relief camps, where in exchange for room-and-board, single men did physically demanding labour. The government was criticized for establishing the camps rather than addressing the need for reasonable work and wages. Relief camps are an example of decline for Canada because the men who were sent to these camps had to deal with harsh conditions such as: hard labour, only 20 cents a day, 44 hours a week, no entertainment, cramped bunks, poor food ans isolation from society. R.B Bennett created these camps because he was afraid of a communist society and the untouchables committing crime. This is significant because it seemed like it was helping them but in reality, wasn't helping at all. Also, shows us how canadians were afraid of a communist society.
( Union Nationale)
(Co-operative Commonwealth Federation)
(Social Credit Party)
In this presentation, I will demonstrate my knowledge of events which took place from 1929-1945 by choosing the ten events that I feel represent progress or decline in Canada. I will give an explanation for each followed by the historical significance.