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Energy Balance and Sports Performance

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Alan Simpson

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Energy Balance and Sports Performance

Energy intake and expenditure can be measured in either calories or joules.

Sources of Energy
1 g of carbohydrate = 4 kcals
1 g of protein = 4 kcals
1 g of fat = 9 kcals

Energy Measurement
Energy Intake & Expenditure
Energy Balance
Energy Balance Differences
Positive +

Negative -

Equal =
Forms of Energy Balance


Ways to get energy into the body

Physical Activity


Dietry Thermogenisis
Ways of utilizing energy
Body Composition
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal caloric requirement needed to sustain life in a resting individual. This is the amount of energy your body would burn if you slept all day or rested in bed for 24 hours. A variety of factors affects your basal metabolic rate. Some speed it up so you burn more kilocalories per day just to stay alive, whereas other factors slow down your metabolic rate so that you need to eat fewer kilocalories just to stay alive.

Basal Metabolism
As you get older you start to lose more muscle tissue and replace it with fat tissue. The more muscle tissue a person has, the greater their BMR, and vice versa. Hence, as you get older this increased fat mass will have the effect of slowing down your BMR.

Taller, heavier people have higher BMRs. There is more of them so they require more energy.

Body Size
Children and pregnant women have higher BMRs. In both cases the body is growing and needs more energy.

Young athletes (20's) tend to find achieving energy balance easier than older athletes (30's).
Into your 40's & 50's it gets even harder.

Think of any Sports People you know who are a good example of this?
Female athletes tend to struggle maintaining weight control.

Male athletes find it easier mainly due to the increased muscle mass (metabolically active tissue)

Research Topic - Female Athlete Triad (F.A.T)
Exercising or competing in sport in different climates affect the bodies energy expenditure in a range of ways.

Cold Weather - Lots of energy used to stay warm

Warm Weather - Lots of energy used to stay cool


Research Topic - Qatar World up 2022.
Climate / Environment
Body Weight Differences
Are there times when you feel you have struggled to maintain, lose or gain weight?

Give examples.
Many athletes, especially female athletes and participants in endurance and aesthetic sports and sports with
weight classes, are chronically energy deficient. This energy deficiency impairs performance, growth and health.

An understanding of energy balance and how energy needs can benefit performance can be the difference between a good player and a great player.
Energy Balance & Sports Performance
Sporting Examples
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