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Racial Achievement Gap
Transcript of Racial Achievement Gap
economy and the individual's probability of
future success and performance. Impact of the data Suggestions that may help close the gap Renee Vito
Elisia Bielawski By; Quite simply, the top gap is the range of top performing students in comparison to those who have scored lower
Members of minority groups, specifically blacks and latinos, are not only amongst an extremely minute percentage of top performers but they comprise the overwhelming majority of under achieving students
Only three percent are at an advanced level- overtime this number dwindles down to one percent by the twelfth grade
We see that although the nation as a whole may increase their scores, less than ten percent of students amongst these minority groups follow the trend Accessibility to a Good Education Looking specifically at African Americans, predominantly black schools offer less AP classes When they do, in fact, only four percent score above a 3; the national average is fifteen percent This lack of resources and academic output have a direct result on the future socio-economic status of the individuals exposed to this type of system While we look at poverty as an issue of good education, poor whites still retain higher scores than minorities
On average, poor minorities are two years behind in learning than whites
They are three years behind as compared to wealthy whites
They can be up to five years behind other students when looking at specific states' educational systems, such as New Jersey's Data Trend: As black poverty rates increase, the lower test scores are. Test scores for black students strongly correlate to black poverty rates Inconsistency: States such as Ohio and Texas have more than twice the percentage of black child poverty rates compared to states such as Maryland and Connecticut, yet black students still achieve higher scores. Exhibit B Although trends regarding the racial gap are visible, there are some inconsistencies in the data, as illustrated: California and Texas are two large states with similar demographics but different achievement outcomes Inconsistency: Texas has a higher percentage of black and latino students than California; the state also spends less per a pupil and has a lower income per capita. Yet, Texas students of all racial backgrounds outperform California students. Exhibit 7 Within a state, districts with similar demographics can have different levels of achievement Inconsistency: District 1 has a higher percentage of black and latino students in comparison to District 2, 3, & 4. District 1 also has more economically disadvantaged students than District 4. However, students from District 1 perform higher and have a lower drop out rate. Exhibit 9 Within the same district, schools with similar demographics can have very different achievement outcomes Inconsistency: School A outperforms School B, despite having a higher percentage of black students (4%), and more economically disadvantaged students (8%). Despite this, math and test scores are higher. Exhibit 10 International Achievement Gap Because a majority of the country's students are under performing, it affects the U.S.'s ranking in comparison to other countries.
Just like the international gap, the racial gap worsens the longer the student is in school.
Also like the international gap, the racial gap has the "top gap". "Just as with the international context, there is a notable gap
within the overall racial achievement gap having to do with
top performers. We term this gap the “top gap.” Blacks and
Latinos are overrepresented among low-scoring students
and underrepresented at the top." "In eighth grade math, US Latino students perform below students in Malta and Serbia and about as well as students in Malaysia; US black students lag behind Romania and Bulgaria and roughly match students in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Similar results are seen for15-year-olds in science, with US Latinos scoring at the level of students in Chile and Serbia, and US blacks on par with students in Mexico and Indonesia." "Between the fourth and twelfth grades, for
example, the gap versus white student math scores grows
41 percent for Latinos and 22 percent for blacks. Achievement Between States There are some cases in which the racial gap in states have been overcome.
The size of the racial achievement gap is not directly correlated with the overall performance of a state. "For example, Latino students in Ohio outperform white
students in 13 other states on the eighth grade NAEP
reading test and are seven points ahead of the national
average. In Texas, low-income black students have the
same average score on the fourth grade NAEP as low-
income white students in Alabama." Exhibit 4 Socio-economic Achievement Whites generally outperform blacks and Latinos at every income level. The average non-poor white student is about four years ahead of the average poor black student.
Low income blacks suffer from the largest achievement gap.
Income gaps remain large in otherwise high-performing states. Systems Gap Exhibit C Exhibit A Even when controlling race and income, the differences between achievement in states can be as high as two years of learning. Schools that enroll 90 percent or more non-white students spend less per pupil per year than schools that enroll 90 percent or more white students School-level segregation may also be problem in some states. Government assistance for poverty-stricken students.
Reverse programs such as No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top.
As a nation, we should strive to provide a sufficient education to everyone across the board-- no limits because of race, money, or location. While Brown v. Board of Education sought to incorporate students of lesser quality schools, primarily minority majority areas, we should bring the education to them. What it comes down to is accessibility. The potential for better is there, yet the outlet in order to achieve this is lacking.
Better teacher quality and school funding and perhaps a change in teacher salary. More experienced teachers with records of success are needed in poorer districts with students of color. Exhibit 8 Impact on the Individual Impact on the economy If black/latino students and white students had the same educational performance by 1998, GDP in the U.S. would have been between $310-525 billion by 2008. The impact of this would increase along the years because of the rise in black and Latino population. White students have comparably higher test scores from an early age that continues throughout their educational careers, thus increasing their chances of graduating and obtaining a career. "Tests as early as fourth grade are powerful predictors of future achievement and life outcomes. Exhibit 5 Exhibit C Exhibit A Exhibit 5 Consequences of the data: Lower test scores indicate that the student is less educated, and this puts the individual at a greater risk of ending up behind bars, dropping out of high school, having an unhealthy lifestyle, and being uninsured. "...Reaching low-achieving students in the early years of their education can have a tremendous impact on their life outcomes." Impact on the Individual (cont.) Exhibit 11 Black and Latino
fall under the
are "unable to
participate in the
economy due to...
low skills, high
high incarceration rates."