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Chapter 4:Applications of ICT
Transcript of Chapter 4:Applications of ICT
delete/store multiple messages
forward the message to another voice mail inbox
have different messages
retrieve the message from another phone by dialling into thevoice mail system and using a PIN
use voice recognition to have the voice mail forwarded to the user by email
Menus These are set up on digital phone systems to provide the caller with a choice of services available.
Can be useful as people can quickly select the options required to get through the services.
However menus do not always cover the service the caller wants. Ringback If the recipient engaged they may have the option to press a number to request a 'ring back'.
When the recipient has finished, the telephone of the caller who requested the ring back will ring Videophone The caller and recipient can see each other as well as hear each other
Many mobile phones now include this facility Caller display The recipient can look at a display screen to see the number
of the person calling.
The recipient can then decide whether or not to accept the call. Conference call One person holding the conversation can dial number to invite another person to join the conversation Banking Automated teller machines Customers have to insert their cash card into the ATM
The ATM reads the customer's sort code and account number from the magnetic stripe on the back of the card.
The customer is asked to input their PIN(personal identification number)
If the PIN matches, then the ATM gives the customer access to their account where they can withdraw cash, request mini statement, request a balance, requesting a check book, changing PINS, depositing cheques and cash. Credir/debit card These are used as part of Electronic funds Transfer at the Point of Sale(EFTPOS).
Funds are transferred from the buyer's account to the vendor's account electronically.
With a debit card, money is tranferred from the buyer's bank account to the vendor's account.
If there is not enough money in the buyer's account the transaction will be refused.
With credit cards, the buyer is given a temporary loan by the credit card company to pay for goods/services.
The amount charged is added to the total amount the buyer owes to the credit card company.
The chip and pin card reader will read the account number and the customer will be asked to enter their PIN to confirm the card belongs to them.
Cheques These can be used for sending money in the post
The magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) characters include cheque number,sort code and account number.
The sort code identifies the bank and branch.
The account number identifies the account within that branch
When cheques are received for clearing they go through a process:
using OCR to read the amount of the cheque
using MICR to read the cheque number, sort code, and account number
sorting the cheques
recording the transaction Production control Used in the manufacturing industry to automate the production process.
Can be configured to change their role based on what is being produced.
Robots are usually used to carry out the actual production.
Global positioning systems Very popular with car satellite navigation systems.
They use GPS satellites to identify their location.
The navigation software uses the GPS to identify exactly where the vehicle is.
A driver needs to input the destination.
The navigation software calculates the route by using GPS to determine the current position of the vehicle and then plan a route to the destination.
The software can also tell the driver how long it will take to reach the destination, the distance left to the Navigation Navigation can be achieved using web-based software such as multimap or Google Maps.
The user is asked to enter a starting position and a destination
The navigation software will calculate a route and produce a set of directions. Weather forecasting Measuring and recording data It is important to record what has recently happend and what is happening with weather to provide an accurate forecast
Include: Satellite images, temperature, moisture in the atmosphere, humidity, rainfall, wind spped/direction, cloud cover, atmospheric pressure and sunshine.
These measurements are taken at regular time intervals Modelling a forecast Meteorologists use complex computer models to predict what the weather will do in the future.
GTS(global telecommunication system) enables weather observations to be passed around the world using high speed communication links.
Powerful super computers will look at all the data and the changes in the atmosphere in order to model the likely changes that will happen next.
The computer model cannot be relied on completely and so meterologists are needed to correct any errors that may occur. Producing a forecast People want to know what is going to happen with the weather in the future.
Includes: temperature,wind speed/directions, visibility, cloud cover, rain/snow.
The accuracy of the information provided reduces when longer future forecasts are required. Software based training methods Computer based training(CBT) is using the computer to assist with training CBT monitors the way student learns and gives feedback to both trainee and tutor Sound, picture, multimedia can be used. Quizzes can be built to enable interaction. Some CBT software includes....... Log on, each trainee has a user ID and password so their progress can be recorded Feedback to the trainee so that they can overview the topics they covered and their stregths and weaknesses Pre-assessment, some systems ask questions in advance to work what the trainee already knows Feedback to the tutor so they can monitor the progress each trainee is making Target setting, trainees can set themselves targets and the software can create a learning plan. Assignment setting, the tutor can set an assignment. Trainees will be notified about it, some systems can automatically mark the assignment. Databases Partitioned databases Different parts of the data stored at different Horizontal Partionaning Data is separated across sites based on records Vertical partioning Data is separated across sites based on fields. Replicated databases Database are copied in their entirety at each site within the network Central database Stored on one single location Security issues Interception of data Fragmented and central databases require high quality encryption techniques.
Replicated databases require a lot of updates Physical access to data With fragmented and replicated databases, each site stores data to prevent unauthorised access.
With central databases security need to be centrally. Expert systems A computer program made up of knowledge and rules that can be used to diagnose a problem Used for decision making and recommending courses of action Components Knowledge base Inference engine User interface Management information systems(MIS) Designed to used to produce useful information to the management of the organisation It organises data and creates links between sets of data that are inter-related It only provides the information, it does not make the decisions. E.g monitoring budgets, identifying trends in sales, monitoring cash flow. Pay per view (Impact) Individuals Viewers only have to pay for each programme
They don't have to pay full subscription price
They can arrange their viewing around their life Television companies They may receieve extra incomes because of this.
They may lose money if people can only pay per view Broadcasters Have to make pay per view available
Have to have facilities where payments can be made.
Have to put encryption & other security
A high bandwidth is required.