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Transcript of The Holocaust
February 28: Emergency powers are granted to Hitler.
March 24: German parliament passes Enabling Act giving Hitler dictatorial powers.
April 1: Nazis stage boycott of Jewish shops and businesses.
April 26: The Gestapo is born.
July 14: The Nazi part is declared the only legal part in Germany.
September 29: Nazis prohibit jews from owning land.
October 4: jews are prohibited from being newspaper editors.
Nazis pass laws against Habitual and Dangerous criminals. January 24: Jews are banned from German Labor Front.
July 20: The SS is made an independent organization from the SA.
July 22: Jews are prohibited from getting legal qualifications.
April 2: German President von Hindenburg dies. Hitler becomes Führer.
August 19: Hitler receives 90% "Yes" vote from German voters approving his new power. 1935 September 15: Nuremberg Race Laws against Jews are decreed. 1936 February 10: The German Gestapo is placed above the law.
June 17: Heinrich Himmler is appointed chief of the German Police.
August 1: Olympic Games begin in Berlin. 1937 November 8: The "Eternal Jew" traveling exhibition opens in Munich. 1938 March 12/13: Nazi troops enter Austria. Hitler announces Anschluss with Austria.
April 26: Nazis order jews to register wealt and property.
July: US holds a League of nations conference, to consider helping Jews flee Hitler.
July 23: Nazis order jews over the age of 15 to apply for identity cards.
August 11: Nazis destroy the synagogue in Nuremburg.
August 17: Nazis require women to add Sarah and men to add Israel to their names on all legal documents.
September 27: Jews are prohibited from all legal practices.
October 5: Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red "J".
October 15: Nazi troops occupy Sudetenland. Himmler committed suicide by biting a vial of cyanide May 23, 1945 because he failed to achieve his assigned objectives, which were to command the Army Group Upper Rhine, ordered by Hitler; therefore Hitler replaced him.
After the end of the war, Himmler went behind Hitler’s back and attempted to open peace talks with the western Allies. Hitler eventually found out and dismissed him from all his posts so Himmler went into hiding and was eventually arrested by British forces and later died. Himmler was basically Hitler’s best friend throughout the Holocaust but was eventually dismissed from all the leadership roles he took part in because of trying to propose peace to the Allies. Himmler was known for having great organizational skills and for selecting highly competent subordinates.
Built the extermination camps and directed the killing of 6 million Jews, 200,000-500,000 Romani people and other victims. The total killing by the Nazis ranges from 11 to 14 million people. He was a military commander and a leading member of the Nazis.
Hitler appointed him Commander of Replacement Army and General Plenipotentiary for the entire Reich’s administration.
One of the most powerful men in Germany.
One of the main ones responsible for the Holocaust. Following Hitler’s orders, he set up and controlled the Nazi concentration camps. (Hitler’s Right-hand Man) Heinrich Himmler 1939 January 30: Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech.
April 30: Jews lose rights as they are put into Jewish houses.
May: The St.Louis, a ship crowded with 930 Jewish refugees is turned way by Cuba, United States and other countries.
September 1: Nazis invade Poland; SS activity begins.
September 3: Great Britain and France declare war on Germany.
September 21: SS begin moving Jews into ghettos.
October: Hitler begins "mercy killing" on sick and disabled in Germany.
October 6: Hitler issues Proclamation on the isolation of Jews.
November 23: Polish jews over the age of 10 are now required to wear yellow stars. 1940 Born In Austria on April 20, 1889.
Father was extremely abusive to Adolf and his mother.Adolf and his younger sister were the only 2 too survive out of 6 children.
He dropped out of high school and never received his diploma in spite of his father.
He was rejected twice to a fine arts school which let to his political career.
His mother died of breast cancer when she was 47. Many say Hitler's hate for the Jews began when his mothers doctor couldn’t save her. (He was a Jew) Rumor or not?
According to Hitler, his anti-Semitism started when he lived in Vienna. He held a small Jewish community responsible for Germany’s collapse and economic problems. He was raised as a Catholic and went to monastery school. The swastika was on a stone arch that Adolf Hitler walked by everyday as a young boy. That is where he got the symbol from when he gained power in his later years.
Hitler’s was adamant to become a priest when he was younger.
Many people questioned this fact because when Hitler came to power he punished many priests who didn’t believe in his political ideology. Stereotype was atheism.
He believed in many things including God and Providence, fate, social Darwinism, the power of propaganda, and ideological politics.
He justified his fight for the German people against the Jews by using Godly and biblical reasoning.
"Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord." Hitler’s Beliefs The Nuremburg laws began in 1935, they were the “official” start of the Holocaust. They stated that a person that did not have at least 4 generations of grandparents that were German was considered a Jew. They also stated that a Jew and a German may not have sexual intercourse or marry. This eventually led to Germans not talking to Jewish people at all.
Night of the Broken Glass was on November 10, 1938. On this night Jewish – owned buildings, business, synagogues, and stores were all destroyed which left glass all over the streets of Germany. His Plan After becoming Chancellor of Germany he gained legislative and executive power.
Started establishing the Nazi Dictatorship. Even though it didn’t gain majority in parliament, Hitler blocked all other attempts for his opponents to come to power through election.
President Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934, Hitler was made the supreme commander of the military and ultimate power of the nation.
The Holocaust slowly began once he came into power. His major policy as a leader was racial purification. He started to eliminate anyone he didn’t believe was worthy of life including physically disabled, mentally retarded and ill people, Jewish people, gypsies, and homosexuals. Hitler’s Power Begins Hitler was sworn as Chancellor by Hindenburg (Germany’s Second President) January 30, 1933 Childhood Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a book written by Adolf Hitler. It is an autobiography and a summary of his political ideology. (Published in 1925)
In Mein Kampf, Hitler talks about an alleged Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership.
“the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”
“With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people.”
Hitler also speaks about what he wanted to do with everyone who was non- Aryan. He called it National Socialist German worker’s party. That was a warning that no one saw. Mein Kampf 1889-1945 Adolf Hitler There is a group of people who deny the Holocaust ever occurred , defaming the survivor experience, a long with dishonoring the memories people built through the time of their suffering. Denial of the Holocaust We do question why the majority of the populations gave silent agreement to Jewish deportations.
Even those nations, which may have been far from where it all took place, must be held accountable since they were not lacking information, resources, and power. Why did this happen? Many survivors still live till this day, telling their experience after suffering through the Holocaust. Leaving us baffled as to why or how a man carried such power.
For the Jewish people the Holocaust taught a lesson in history which will remain with them always and in their families to come. After effect of the Holocaust US troops and British troops also helped out in the liberation of the Nazi Camps.
The survivors who did make it out alive resembled skeletons from the malnutrition they faced along with a long recuperation. The Soviets liberated Auschwitz, the largest killing center and concentration camp, in January 1945.
Along with liberating camps in the Baltic states in Poland Soviet forces were the first to approach a major Nazi camp, reaching Majdanek near Lublin, Poland, in July 1944.
Having seen the quick approaches to the camps, Germans attempted to hide evidence of the cruelties taking place at these camps.
Since approaches were so quick, getting rid of gas chambers was not possible. "Men and women clad in rags, and barely able to move from starvation and typhus lay in their straw bunks in every state of filth and degradation. The dead and dying could not be distinguished. Men and women collapsed as they walked and fell dead." Liberation of Nazi Camps One of the most famous concentration camps. Also the largest, it was made up of 3 camps in one.
Largest in Germany, made up of 3 camps in one. Auschwitz II within the camp was designated the “Final Solution of the Jew Question in Europe”
From early 1942 until 1944, Jews were transported directly to the camp’s gas chambers from all around the German occupied Europe by transport trains
The Camp was liberated by Soviet troops on January 27, 1945 (now known as International Holocaust Remembrance Day)
About 1.3 million deaths, around 90 % Jews Auschwitz Death Happened in various ways in Concentration Camps:
Over work/ Starvation: Scurvy and Rickets caused by lack of vitamin C and maramus found in infants as the result of protein deficiency
Disease: food poisoning, dysentery, pellagra, Typhoid, (many the result of lack of sanitation)
Random Shootings: over 1 million Jews were killed by the Nazi killing squad before the transportation to concentration camps.
Gas Chambers: Huge part of Genocide against Jews. Experiments began at Auschwitz, some able to kill up to 2,000 people at a time.
Medical Experiments: German doctors preformed a wide variety of extremely dangerous and useless experiments on the people in the camps. Methods of Killing Six Death Camps were constructed in Poland consisting of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibór, Lublin.
The purpose was to methodically kill innocent people. The Head of the SS and Secret Police had over 1,500,000 Jews. The shooting of Jews was then halted as the Concentration Camps proved to kill faster and less personally.
The Nazi’s are responsible for about 2.7 million Jewish deaths. Not Just Germany,
Not Just Jews The first Concentration Camps in Germany came about after Aldolf Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor at the beginning of 1933.
The first Nazi Concentration Camp was called Dachau, and held around 4,800 prisoners during the first year.
There were relatively few Jews (mostly Gypsies, homosexuals, and Jehovah's Witnesses) until 1938. First Concentration Camps A camp where people are held under unusually harsh conditions without regard of proper legal arrest procedure. Definition: Awoken by kapo at 4:30 AM Few sanitary stations per hundreds of prisoners.
10 ounces of bread and tasteless “coffee” for breakfast
12-14 hours of hard and useless work
Morning and evening role calls to asses who is dead
Some sort of “soup” for lunch and dinner
“bloodfuher” decides if he wants to test anyone during the evening, sometimes until death
5 people per bunk with one blanket Life In Concentration Camps Concentration Camps "When I came to power, I did not want the concentration camps to become old age pensioners homes, but instruments of terror." - Adolf Hitler After two years of hiding, everyone in The Secret Annex, were found, arrested and taken to Westerbork.
They were all shipped on the last train from Westerbork to Auschwitz.
When they arrived, they were separated and some were sent to different camps.
Anne died of Typhus a few months after her arrival.
Her diary was later picked up by Miep Gies and became one of the most read books in the world
The Secret Annex later became a museum Found and arrested Located in the upper-back portion of Anne’s fathers business.
Total of 8 people hiding:
Entrance concealed behind a movable bookcase
1.No speaking or moving from 8:00am-6:00pm
2. When they could speak…had to be extremely quiet
3. Couldn’t go outside
4. Windows and blinds always had to be shut
To pass the time, Anne would read, study, and write in her diary. The Secret Annex Born on June 12,1929 in Frankfurt, Germany
Was one of the many Jewish children who died during the Holocaust
After the Nazis attacked the Netherlands on May 10, 1940 they quickly began issuing anti-Jewish laws and edicts.
These laws didn’t allow them to go to their normal school, go to a public swimming pool, or even sit on park benches.
The new edict also forced every child over the age of six to wear a yellow star of David.
After the invasion of the Netherlands, the Franks knew that just like the Jews in Germany, the Jews in the Netherlands were eventually going to face death and deportation.
Were unable to escape from the Netherlands, so they decided the only way to survive was to go into hiding. Info: Psychological anthropology is used to relate to the Holocaust.
It incorporates more recent perspectives, which stress the role of the social construction of aggression and obedience and that of pathological social conditions in the creation of genocidal behavior.
Anthropology could aspire to confront the vortex of the Holocaust through an examination of the arenas (ghettos, labor and concentration camps, and other settings) in which genocide transpired. Psychological Anthropology It is the study of humans past, present, and evolution.
By using Anthropology, it helps us discover and uncover the Holocaust by exploring the death camps, finding papers of written orders and other things from the Nazis and by trying to understand the mind of Hitler and his followers. Anthropology How the Holocaust is related to Anthropology. Brought to you by: Dianara Ford
Will Smith Dachau (1933) January 25: Nazis choose the town Oswiecim (Auschwitz) in Poland as the site for the new concentration camp.
February 12: First deportation of German Jews to Auschwitz.
April 9: Nazis invade Denmark and Norway.
May 1: Rudolf Höss is chosen to be kommandant of Auschwitz.
June 22: France signs an armistice with Hitler.
August 8: Romania introduces anti-Jewish measures restricting education and employment, then later begins "Romanianization" of Jewish businesses.
September 27: Tripartite (Axis) Pact signed by Germany, Italy and Japan.
November: Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia become Nazi Allies. ; the Krakow and the Warsaw ghettos are sealed off, combined containf 470,000 Jews. These Camps came about because The Nazi killing squads could not deal with so many people so they were sent to these death camps considered to be more “efficient” January: A pogrom in Romania results in over 2,000 Jews killed.
March: Hitler's Commissar Order authorizes execution of anyone suspected of being a Communist official in territories about to be seized from Soviet Russia.
March 1: Himmler makes his first visit to Auschwitz
March 7: German Jews ordered into forced labor.
September 1: German jews are ordered to wear yellow stars.
September 3: The first test use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz.
September 17: Beginning of general deportation of German jews.
October 23: Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich.
December 8: Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational.
December 11: Hitler declares war on the United States. 1942 January: Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
April 20: German Jews are banned from using public transportation.
May 18: The New York Times reports on an inside page that Nazis have machine-gunned over 100,000 Jews in the Baltic states, 100,000 in Poland and twice as many in western Russia.
June 1: Jews in France, Holland, Belgium, Croatia, Slovakia, Romania ordered to wear yellow stars.
July 7, 1942 - Himmler grants permission for sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.
September 18: Reduction of food rations for Jews in Germany.
October 5: Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.
December 10: The first transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.
December 28: Sterilization experiments on women at Birkenau begin. 1943 January 18: First resistance by jews in Warsaw ghetto.
January 29: Nazis order all Gypsies arrested and sent to extermination camps.
March 1: In New York, American Jews hold a mass rally at Madison Square Garden to pressure the U.S. government into helping the Jews of Europe.
April 19-30: The Bermuda Conference occurs as representatives from the United States and Britain discuss the problem of refugees from Nazi-occupied countries, but results in inaction concerning the plight of the Jews.
May 13: German and Italian troops in North Africa surrender to Allies.
July 9/10: Allied troops land in Sicily.
November 11: Auschwitz Kommandant Höss is promoted to chief inspector of concentration camps. 1944 January 24: In response to political pressure to help Jews under Nazi control, President Roosevelt creates the War Refugee Board.
April 5: A Jewish inmate, Siegfried Lederer, escapes from Auschwitz-Birkenau and makes it safely to Czechoslovakia. He then warns the Elders of the Council at Theresienstadt about Auschwitz.
June 6: D-Day- Allied landings in Normandy on the coast of Northern France.
July 24: Russian troops liberate the first concentration camp, Majdaneke.
October 7: A revolt by Sonderkommando (Jewish slave laborers) at Auschwitz-Birkenau results in complete destruction of Crematory IV.
October 30: Last use of the gas chambers at Auschwitz.
November: Nazis force 25,000 Jews to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen.
November 25: Himmler orders destruction of the crematories at Auschwitz. 1945 As Allied troops advance, the Nazis conduct death marches of concentration camp inmates away from outlying areas.
January 6: Russians liberate Budapest.
January 17: Liberation of Warsaw by Russians.
January 27: Russian troops liberate Auschwitz.
April 10: Allies liberate Buchenwald.
April 29: U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau.
April 30: Hitler commits suicide in in Berlin bunker; americans free 30,000 inmates from concentration camps.
May 23: Reichsführer Himmler commits suicide while in British custody.
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