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FORM: MUSICAL STRUCTURE AND DESIGN

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Kaira De Leon

on 16 July 2015

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Transcript of FORM: MUSICAL STRUCTURE AND DESIGN

FORM: MUSICAL STRUCTURE AND DESIGN
In constructing a musical piece, the composer starts with an idea called
theme
.
Form
is the quality in a work of art which presents to the mind of the beholder an impression of judicious arrangement.

It helps us to grasp the work of art as a unity.

Musical Structure or musical form

is a general plan or design of a composer where he or she assembles his or her materials.
STRUCTURAL DISTINCTIONS
1. Form in relation to a piece as a whole
2. Form in relation to the separate, shorter parts of a piece

A
theme
consists of melodic, rhythmic and usually harmonic elements which combine to give the musical idea a distinct character or individuality.
A
Central theme
which recurs throughout a composition produces unity, even though one or more subordinates themes may be introduced.
The
principle of variety

in music
means modifications (alteration) of essentially the same idea.
The
principle of form
is embodied in a variety of musical forms. They are based in one way or another on repetition and contrast-unity and variety.
Repetitional principles
apply both to the large sections which comprise an entire movement and also to the small units within each section.
Exact repetition
is the most elementary of all types of repetitions. This may be represented by a a-a-a-a,etc. An example is “Nagtatanim ng Palay”.
Simple repetitions
are to be found in many songs where the same music is repeated in consecutive stanzas. The first form, of variation occurs when, in similar songs, minor alterations are made in the repetition to allow for a closer setting of the text.
Another form of repetition which is fundamental not only to many folk songs but also to art music in its smallest and largest sections is repetition after a digression.
This repetition may be exact in which case it is represented by a-b-a.
Very often in music, the first a is immediately repeated. There would appear to be some fundamental need to impress a first phrase or section on the listener’s mind before the disgression comes.
The point to remember about a smaller units is that every time a theme is exposed, there is a strong likelihood that it will be repeated immediately; that once repeated, a disgression is in order; and that after the disgression, a return to the first theme, either exact or varied, is to be expected.
The
sonata
is a composition in three or four movements written for a solo instrument.
Sonatas for chamber music groups are called trios, quartets and so forth.

The
sectional forms
divide into main sections.
They are called either
binary
or
ternary

forms
depending on how these main sections are repeated.
A piece of music which consists of two main sections is considered to be in binary form.
If there is only one musical idea or theme, the first and second sections may duplicate each other or the second may have some modifications but may remain essentially a duplicate of the first.
An example of where the first and second sections duplicate each other is the Ilokano folksongs,
“Manang Biday”
.
It has the binary form which may be represented by a formula
AA
.
“Leron,Leron Sinta”
is an example of where some modifications are noticeable in the second section. This song may be represented by
AA’
.
The sign(‘) after A (A’) means a
modified A
.
VARIATION FORM
We notice that
repetition
is a basic element of musical structure.
Variation
is operative to some extent in every kind of music. The most common variation form is known as
theme and variation
or
theme with variations
.
The plan of the form involves two steps
(1) there is a statement of a theme (or melody).
(2) The theme is then restated several times, each time with some modification or variation applied.
melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, metric, tonal, textural, etc.
The means of variation:
CONTRAPUNTAL or POLYPHONIC FORM
Other forms known as
Contrapuntal or Polyphonic
are those based on the presence of two or more melodies which point up a tune and its harmonic elements by similarity or contrast rather than on sectional divisions.
The
canon
is one of the most elementary contrapuntal forms.
It is a polyphonic composition in which all the parts or voices have the same melody throughout , although starting at different points, a device known as
imitation
.
In canons, the time lag between the parts may range from a few beats to several measures. The round songs,
”Lovely Evening”
, is an example of
vocal canon
.
SONATA FORM
The term came from the Italian
sounare
, “to sound” indicating a piece to be sounded on instruments as distinct from cantata, a piece to be sung.
SONATA
The
sonata form
or
sonata allegro form
is a large-scale dramatic form. It is the most highly organized member of the several movements that make up the sonata cycle.
It is built on two themes which are presented in three large sections called the
exposition
,
development
and
recapitulation
.
This section contains two principal themes and usually several subordinate themes.
The
main themes
, themes A and B are always in different keys and are connected by
“extrathematic”
music called
“transition”
.
Exposition Section
Development Section
The two themes are developed in any way the composer chooses. In this section, music moves into new and foreign keys.
The suite consisted mainly of a series of dance movements which were all in the same key.
It presented an international galaxy of dance types: the
German allemande
,
French courante
,
Spanish sarabande
,
English jig (gigue)
.
The essential element of suite was dance rhythm, with its imagery of physical movement. The form met the needs of the age for elegant entertainment music and at the same time it offered composers a wealth of popular rhythms that could be transmitted into art.
SUITE
Recaputation
restates more or less literally what was found in the exposition, except that all the themes are now in the tonic key-that is, Theme B is now heard in the same key as Theme A.
The
modern suite
has no necessary connection with the dance forms. It is a group of related compositions under one title or it may be a collection of separate pieces which have been put together because of some unifying idea not necessarily musical.
FREE FORM
All forms that do not have as a point of reference the usual form molds are technically
“free”
forms.
1. The
toccata
is usually written for a keyboard instrument. It has no standard structural scheme thus it usually contains alternating passages or sections of scale work, figuration(pattern material) chordal materials and contrapuntal textures.
2. The
prelude
is a form closely related to the sonata. It is a piece to be played as an introduction. Preludes are short; some are not only a page in length, several consist of two or three lines.
3. The
impromptu
which conveys some underlying mood or style, although has connotations of spontaneity or on the spur of the moment, is actually written down and published.
4. The
etude
is a special type of free form usually of great difficulty. It is a composition of artistic worth suitable for concert performances.
5. The
nocturne
is another composition which illuminates a particular mood rather than a general idea. It suggest the atmosphere of night.
PROGRAM MUSIC
Program music
is a kind of music associated with story element or a poetic idea. It is distinguished from absolute or pure music which deals with musical patterns devoid of the literary or pictorial connotations.
Imitative music
imitates the actual sound of the subject as in the imitation of animals which was popular even before the flowering of the instrumental music.
Descriptive program music
depicts an events or a scene. Beethoven’s Symphony No.6, called the Pastoral Symphony was one of the first examples of descriptive program music.
Narrative music
is when music is intended to tell a story or depict a series of related events.
FOLK MUSIC AND ART SONG
Folk music
is the spontaneous and traditional music of a people, race, or nation.
An
art song
is sophisticated and is usually composed with a piano accompaniment. As opposed to folk song, it is the work of musically trained composers.
Poetry
is usually written in units of several lines known as stanzas or strophes. These strophes constitute the structural units of a song, subdivided into phrase or periods.
There are two main structural categories in art song:

(1) strophic and (2) through composed or continuous.
Jazz music
is an exciting from of music where melody and rhythm blend harmoniously. The rhythmic background and syncopation are strong.
Modern jazz
began to develop in the 1940's. A typical modern jazz group may use trumpet, saxophone, piano, double bass and drums, and the musicians take ‘solos’ when each in turn is the main improviser.
The
Opera
, which is a musical drama, has for many years been one of the most alluring forms of musical entertainment.
The text of an opera is called
Libretto
. This is sometimes adapted from a novel or drama.
The instrumental composition which serves as an introduction to the opera is called an
overture
or sometimes a
prelude
.
The
recitative
is a kind of musical speech. Here the composer’s interest is primarily in declamation that is in, making the word intelligible rather than in constructing a beautiful song.
Oratorio
is a dramatic religious work on non-liturgical intent. It employs operative forms but is performed without staging, costuming or scenery.
The cantata and the passion
are special forms of the oratorio. A cantata is a small oratorio for vocalists, chorus and instrumentalists based on a poetic narrative, either religious or secular, of a lyric or dramatic nature.
The
passion
is a musical version of that part of the Gospels, which deals with the agony and death of Christ. In the sixteenth century, the Passion was performed in church during the Holy Week, while the oratorio was a musical entertainment presented in a public hall.
Liturgical Music.
Although the purpose of liturgical music is to create or enhance attitudes of worship, like painting and architecture, it is frequently experienced as an art, entirely apart from the religious function.
1.
Plain song
is the greatest body of liturgical melody, also called plainchant and Gregorian chant. Its characteristics are monophonic, non metric, rhythmically free, modal and sung in Latin.
2. A
chorale
is a hymn tune, specifically one associated with German Protestantism.
Chorale melody differs from Catholic Gregorian Chant in that it is more often harmonized and accompanied, more regular in meter and rhythm, and sung in the vernacular language instead of in Latin.

3. The
Mass
is a ritual of the Roman Catholic Church which constitutes a re-enactment of the sacrifice of Christ.

the ordinary of the Mass
the Proper of the Mass
2 Main Divisions:
The Ordinary of the Mass consists of five sections:

Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei. These parts are usually sung in monophonic plainsong or in polyphonic settings.
The parts of the Proper of the Mass:
the Introit, Graduale, Alleluia, Offertorium and Communion. These parts are sung in plainsong or else in polyphonic settings called
motets
.
The
motet
is a liturgical form extensively employed in the Renaissance.
The
Requiem Mass
is a special kind of mass. It is also called Mass for the Dead.
It got its name from the first words of the text:
Requiem aeternam do na eis
. Domine (Give to them, O Lord, eternal rest).
MUSIC THERAPY
Music therapy
Is the prescribed use of music by a qualified person to effect positive changes in the psychological, physical, cognitive, or social functioning of individual with health or educational problems.
Therapeutic Music
This pertains to music that is curative in function.
Catharsis
an emotional relief experienced by the individual thereby helping him recover from a previous pent-up emotion.
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