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Panama Canal 2
Transcript of Panama Canal 2
1500s, when Spain considered digging a canal through the isthmus Long before the U.S. was discovered, Panama was the third richest colony of the New World In the late 17th century, it fell to the English Empire and was neglected Isthmus: is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas usually with waterforms on either side.
The Isthmus of Panama
-50 miles wide at narrowest point
-crazy land formations When the United States took over construction years later, they undoubtedly benefitted from the French attempts. Key Events Long Term Impact significance of key events Colombia & US signed a treaty in 1846 to main neutrality and protect all trade routes across Panama. In 1850, in the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, US & UK agreed to protect the neutrality of a canal to be built somewhere across the Central American isthmus (without controlling).
-only established that neither could colonize, occupy Central America.
-unpopular in U.S. b/c it would close southward expansion & would get in the way of a canal
1879 Ferndiand de Lesseps planned a canal at Panama
-workers got yellow fever & malaria
-company was bankrupt (1889)
In 1901 the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty gave the U.S. a helping hand to build the canal and rights to fortify it without Britain getting in the way
-any canal built across ishthmus should be under american control -The United States' agressive and so-called "rape" of Panama caused a decline in U.S. relations with Latin America
-The building of the canal made trade and travel eaiser.
-The project showed the world how far America could, and would go to achieve it's goals
-Had HUGE costs, and not just financial ones
-Introduced new health care technologies into Panama
-Was expected to bring huge economic benefits to Panama...but really brought most profits to America
-The canal has undergone expansions to hold more ships
-The journey between oceans was cut down from 13,000 miles to 2,500 miles.
In 1904, Colonel William C. Gorgas took charge of improving sanitary conditions in the Canal Zone
- American physician, famous for wiping out yellow fever in Havana, Cuba, after the Spanish-American War
-destroyed the types of mosquitoes that carried malaria and yellow fever
-1906 wiped out yellow fever and eliminated the rats that carried bubonic plague in the Canal Zone-by 1913 the amount of deaths by malaria were significantly reduced
In 1904 the construction of the Panama Canal began, and in 1914 it was completed at a cost of $400 million.
In 1906, Congress decided to build a canal with locks
-cheap & fast to build
-However progress was slow
In 1907, Roosevelt put Colonel George W. Goethals, (Army engineer) in charge of the project and the Canal Zone.
-biggest job was digging the Gaillard Cut (soft volcanic material, like a pile of grain)
-dug out about 211 million cubic yards of eath and rock. -Used its military leverage to force Panama into accepting a low payment for Canal territory. 1913, more than 43,400 people worked on the Panama Canal.
-3/4 were blacks from the British West Indies
- Other :Italian, Spanish
-skilled workers: American
The Canal's necessity arose out of the industrialization of the Gilded Age, as the demand for exporting manufactured goods expanded The opening of the canal on August 15, 1914, represented the realization of a dream of over 400 years A giant landslide in the Gaillard Cut closed the canal for several months in 1915 and 1916
-closed for months
-President Wilson officially opened canal in July 12, 1920 by Leslie Novella, Emma Montgomery, and Charlie McDougall For ships to cross quickly from the Atlantic to the Pacific, a canal had to be built across Central America Background PANAMA It would take almost four centuries to reach this goal. After his discovery, the Spainsh, French, British and Americans tried to create the path between oceans. Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to reach the Pacific in 1517, saw the possibility of a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans The project failed because of:
-lack of organization
-ultimate bankrupcy Construction Begins! 1879: A French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps, the builder of the Suez Canal began constructing the Panama Canal January 1881: first group of French engineers arrived to start the task. Feburary 4th, 1889: After 8 years of struggle,
the project is abandoned. Historian's Opinions Conservatives beleived that Roosevelt was extending his powers too far by going into other countrys There was much accusation about my having acted in an 'unconstitutional' manner," Teddy shrugged. "I took the isthmus, started the canal, and then left Congress -- not to debate the canal, but to debate me. . . . While the debate goes on, the canal does too; and they are welcome to debate me as long as they wish, provided that we can go on with the canal. Roosevelt supposedly encouraged the 1903 revolution for independence in Panama: the revolution conveniently began after the U.S. warship Nashville docked in Colón, Panama
"It had engineered a revolution against Colombia and created the "independent" state of Panama in order to build and control the Canal." says Howard Zinn of the U.S. The Path of the Canal In 1936, the United States agreed to raise its annual payments to Panama to $430,000
-2 million per year
-made dollar devalueated From the 1920's to the 1970's, the United States and Panama had many disputes concerning U.S. control over the Panama Canal Zone.
-The Panamanians regarded the zone as part of their country.
-US didnt want to let go (still had military bases there)
Bush sent U.S. troops to Panama in December 1989
-overthrow the dictatorship of General Manuel Antonio Noriega
-invalid: the results of Panama's presidential election that apparently was won by Endara.
- US cooperated with President Guillermo Endara after overthrow.
-it was an obligation to maintain neutrality
-1990, Noriega surrendered to U.S. officials
-convicted of drug trafficking and sentenced to 40 years in prison.
* US wanted to restablish influence over Panama
-only protected its economic and political interests. A treaty was signed in 1977 to guarantee that the canal will remain open to all nations even in time of war.
-a second treaty goves the United States the right to use military force to protect the neutrality of the canal.
-Panama received territorial jurisdiction over the panama canal zone in 1979.
Panama took control of the operations of the canal and its associated military installations on Dec. 31, 1999. August 1903 Colombian Senate rejected a treaty which granted the US a six mile wide canal zone in exchange of $1o million ($250,000 annually)
-Colombia was outraged since isthmus was one of their valuable asset's (low payments)
-Theodore Roosevelt said Colombians stood in the way of civilization The Panamanians revolted against Colombia on Nov. 3, 1903 (French helped, US encouraged)
-within 15 days Panama was recognized & agreement of canal zone was settled
-1903 treaty between the US & Panama gave the United States the right to build and operate the waterway (US got control of a ten mile zone)
-latin american states would not get in the way now
-relations with Colombia were damaged
-Panamians later believed this treaty favored the US only The project removed enough dirt to fill a tunnel, 14 feet in diameter, through the heart of the earth Despite lethal landslides, workers with dynamite and clumsy steam shovels cut their way across a continent. At the time, no single project in American history had reached such a price in dollars or in human life Through the Canal, a ship sailing from New York to San Francisco could cut its journey from 13,000 miles to just over 5,000 Construction Controversy! -The U.S. didn't allow Panamanian businesses to sell goods or services in the Canal Zone.
-Avoided employment of Panamanian workers http://apnotes.net/ch28.html
Longley, Kyle. "Panama Canal." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 6. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 237-241. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 26 Apr. 2011.
Buschini, J. "The Panama Canal." Small Planet. 2000. Web. 26 Apr. 2011. . Works Consulted