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APES

Final Extra Credit Project
by

Karlie Merritt

on 19 April 2013

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Transcript of APES

By Karlie Merritt APES FINAL PROJECT Places to Know... Environmental Laws and Treaties People to Know Chernobyl, Ukraine This event occurred on April 26th, 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. It was a catastrophic nuclear accident causing large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere. This event is widely considered the worst nuclear plant accident in history. "A Greenpeace report in 2006 suggested that the full health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancer cases, with nearly 100,000 being fatal." (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/25/chernobyl_n_1453473.html) Three-Mile Island, Pennsylvania The Three-Mile Island accident occurred at the the Three Mile Island power plant in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania on March 28th, 1979. At the time this was the worst accident in U.S. commercial power plant history. This accident was caused by a minor malfunction in the secondary cooling circuit which caused the temperature in the primary coolant to rise. Steam formed in the reactor primary cooling system. An evacuation radius of 20 miles around the plant was called for and they finally returned to their homes three weeks later. The aftermath concluded that ; "The Radiation and Public Health Project cited calculations by Joseph Mangano—who has authored 19 medical journal articles and a book on Low Level Radiation and Immune Disease—that reported a spike in infant mortality in the downwind communities two years after the accident. Anecdotal evidence also records effects on the region's wildlife."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident_health_effects) Yucca Mountain, Nevada Since 1987, the U.S. nuclear establishment in industry has tried to convert Yucca's rock (which has be fractured by earthquake activity) into the worlds first permanent burial dump for highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Since there is frequent earthquake activity, there is a concern that it would allow for radioactivity to massively leak out into the underground drinking water supply over time. "In July of 2004, the NIRS and coalition of environmental and public interest groups, along with the State of Nevada, won the huge victory at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit." Without the NIRS and its allies, high level radioactive waste could have possibly been in Nevada's Yucca Mountain already today. Aral Sea, Uzbekistan/Kazakhstan (Former Soviet Union) The Aral Sea was once a huge saline lake, which were drained for agricultural use, creating one of the world's worst ecological and human disasters. This lake used to be half of the size of California and fueled ancient civilizations. This disaster all began when the Soviet government decided that the two rivers that fed the Aral Sea would be diverted to irrigate the desert in order to grow agriculture. The canals, that were poorly built, caused about 20 to 60 cubic kilometers of water each year to go to the land instead if the sea which eventually would be the cause of shrinking of the Aral Sea. "From 1961 to 1970, the Aral's sea level fell at an average of 20 cm a year; in the 1970s, the average rate nearly tripled to 50–60 cm per year, and by the 1980s it continued to drop, now with a mean of 80–90 cm each year. The rate of water usage for irrigation continued to increase: the amount of water taken from the rivers doubled between 1960 and 2000, and cotton production nearly doubled in the same period. " Luckily during periods of global warming, glaciers started to melt and the volume of the Aral Sea began to increase. As stated in the article, things are looking better for the Aral Sea; "June 2007 For decades, the Aral Sea has been described as dying and beyond salvation. But now, the water is flowing back, bringing economic revival and hope for the future. " (http://www.theworldwonders.com/asia/aral-sea.html) Love Canal, NY In August of 1978, the Love Canal exploded. The explosion of this canal was caused by a record amount of rainfall and shortly after that leaching. As shown in a article from the New York Times, this was a very serious matter, "NIAGARA FALLS, N.Y.--Twenty five years after the Hooker Chemical Company stopped using the Love Canal here as an industrial dump, 82 different compounds, 11 of them suspected carcinogens, have been percolating upward through the soil, their drum containers rotting and leaching their contents into the backyards and basements of 100 homes and a public school built on the banks of the canal." Five known birth-defect cases were known of at the time in this area. In the end a total of 122 families were evacuated from the area. Due to this disaster, The Clean Air and Water Acts, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Pesticide Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, all stepped in to try to be a solution to this toxic problem.
(http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/lovecanal/01.html) Aswam High Dam, Egypt The Aswam High Dam was completed in 1970 after ten years of work. This dam captures the longest river in the world, The Nile River, in the worlds third largest reservoir, Lake Nasser. The first Aswam Dam was built in 1889. This damn could not hold the water back as it rose every year higher and higher. In order to build this new dam, many families and communities were moved away from their homes. A benefit of this dam is that it controls the annual floods of the Nile River in Egypt. Also it makes sure the water is consistent which makes traveling on the river easier. But there are also some cons to this dam. It has caused about 12-14% of sediment loss so farmers are having to use about a million tons of artificial fertilizer now. Also the shrimp catch in the Mediterranean Sea has lowered due to the change in water flow.
(http://geography.about.com/od/specificplacesofinterest/a/nile.htm) Three Gorges Dam, China Chinese Government officials ignored environmentalists when they said that this damn could be the most dangerous thing that China is faced with. The Three Gorges Dam lays on the Yangtze River of China and was built on and off from 1944 to 1994. The waters of this dam are very polluted and tremors and landslides are increasingly becoming a problem which is making living near the dam very dangerous. This dam was created to tame the flood-prone waters of the river and to create clean electricity for China to use so they could step away from using fossil fuels. The upstream water is bad because the flow of the water is too slow to flush waste away so the water gets polluted. A major disadvantage of the dam being built was that a total of 1.24 million people had to relocate from their homes because they were getting flooded neighborhoods due to the dam. Ogallala Aquifer The Ogallala Aquifer is the largest aquifer in the U.S. and supports the fields of the breadbasket. If this aquifer goes dry, $20 billion worth of food and fiber will vanish from the worlds markets. Scientists have said that it will take 6,000 years for natural processes to refill the aquifer. Many farmers were forced to abandon their wells due to the water dropping 150 ft. The biggest challenge was how to manage human demands of the water that spreads underneath eight of the states from South Dakota to Texas. Minamata, Japan In Minamata, Japan in 1956, a horrible disease was discovered that was a neurological syndrome caused by mercury poisoning. This disease was caused by the release of methyl mercury in the industrial waste water of the Chisso Corporation chemical factory. This toxic chemical bio accumulated in the shellfish that was eaten by the people in the city of Minamata, which caused deaths in humans, cats, and dogs for over 30 years. On October 1959, Chisso was ordered by the Ministry of International Trade to switch its waste water to a different location and to speed up the instillation of waste water systems at the factory. Bhopal, India "On December 3 1984, more than 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas leaked from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, immediately killing at least 3,800 people and causing significant morbidity and premature death for many thousands more." Since this disaster, India has experienced rapid industrialization. With rapid industrialization, human health consequences continue to occur throughout India.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1142333/) Valdez, Alaska Valdez, Alaska is the United States farthest north ice free port that is used for commercial and sport fishing. Valdez is also the southern terminus of the trans-Alaskan oil pipeline. Supertankers bring out about 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day from the ice free waters. But on March 4th of 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck a reef in Alaska's spectacular Prince William Sound. This caused a 11,000,000 gallon oil leak in the waters. The initial clean up took three years and was about $2.1 million in costs. Chesapeake Bay Chesapeake bay is the largest estuary in the United States that consists of complex ecosystems and food webs. This bay is a huge fishing area and is known for its blue crabs, clams, and oysters. A major problem in the Chesapeake bay is that fisheries are over harvesting and the oyster population is decreasing quickly. The harvests gross percent had decrease 88% from 1982 to 2007. The depletion of oysters has had a harmful impact on the bay because the oysters act as a natural water filter and with the decrease in oysters the water quality decreased. Oyster hatcheries are now being built to replace the lost oysters in the bay. Clinch River, Tennessee On December 22, 2008 at 1 am an ash dike ruptured at a 84 acre solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in Roane County, Tennessee, USA. 1.1 billion US gallons (4,200,000 m3) of coal fly ash slurry was released. This spill supposedly killed a lot of fish and residents feared water contamination. But water tests six miles up from the spill showed that the water met drinking water standards. Gulf Oil Spill In 2010, more than a million gallons of oil spewed from a blown out well on the gulf coast of Mexico. Tsunami Japan, 2011 This Tsunami in Japan that occurred in 2011 started out with a 7.9 magnitude earthquake that created a huge tsunami. Dozens of cars and ferries were washed up on the shore. This left many places like Tokyo dark due to the nuclear power plants being immediately shut down. This Tsunami effected so many peoples lives from deaths, injuries and also homes lost. Mining Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act: This act was approved on August 3rd 1977 and establishes a program for surface coal mining and reclamation activities. It also establishes mandatory standard uniform for these activities on federal land, that requires the impacts on fish, wildlife, and other environmental values be minimized. The Act creates a Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund for restoring land and waters affected by coal mining practices. The Madrid Protocol (1989): offered a trademark owner the possibility of having his trademark protected by several countries by simply filing one application with his own national or regional trademark office. This eliminates the need to process multiple bills from different countries and is also less expensive then filing nationally. There are 65 countries involved with this protocol. The United States joined on November 2nd, 2003. Safe Drinking Water Act: was originally passed by congress in 1974 to regulate the nations public drinking water supply. This law was amended in 1986 and 1996 to require actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, streams, ect. However the SDWA does not regulate private wells which serve fewer than 25 individuals. With help from the United States Environmental Protection Agency sets health based standards for drinking water. Water Clean Water Act (1972): establishes the basic structure for regulating pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards of surface waters. The CWA made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from any point source. Water Quality Act of 1965: was required to develop water quality standards establishing water quality goals for interstate waters. the water quality standards are always changing due to environmental discoveries and new scientific information. Ocean Dumping Ban Act was established in 1988 to ban ocean dumping of municipal sewage sludge and industrial waste. However this ban of dumping sewage sludge and industrial waste wasn't completely banned until 1991. So from the period between 1988-1991, the EPA was forced to report to congress on the effectiveness of this agreement. Air Clean Air Act : protects and improves and protects the nations air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. It is projected that the United States will avoid over 230,000 early deaths by 2020 because of the Clean Air Act. Kyoto Protocol: this treaty was negotiated in December 1997 and came into force on February 16th, 2005. This protocol works to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in over 37 industrialized countries. The targeted green house gas emission reduction for the U.S. is 7% reduction. Montreal Protocol: was created to control the production and consumption of substances that can cause ozone depletion. This Protocol was accepted on September 16th, 1987 and forced in on January 1st 1989. Waste Resource Conservation & Recovery Act: in 1976 this act was enacted as an amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act. This act was designed to provide for safe handling of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes as they are generated. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act : was enacted on December 11th, 1980. This law created a tax on chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad federal authority to respond to releases or threatened hazardous of substances that may endanger public health or the environment. Low Level Radioactive Policy Act: this act was amended in 1985 and required each state to be responsible for providing disposal capacity for commercial LLW generated within January 1st 1986. this act highly encouraged states to form regional compacts to build new disposal facilities. Nuclear Waste Policy Act(1982): this act established procedures to select and evaluate sights for geologic repositories and for the action of state and federal government. For example one site that was considered through the NWPA was Yucca Mountains which did not pass. Life Endangered Species Act (1973): provides a program for the conservation of endangered and threatened plants and animals. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species(CITES): First formed in the 1960's: this treaty makes sure that the international trade does not effect the survival of the species. Federal Insecticide , Fungicide, Rodentitide Act:This law provides federal control of pesticide use, distribution, and sale. This law makes sure that all pesticides in use are registered and will not affect the environment. Food Quality Protection Act: passed in 1996 required stricter safety standards, especially for children and infants, and a complete reassessment of all existing pesticide restrictions. National Environmental Policy Act: Requires federal agencies to integrate environmental impacts on their proposed actions and responsible alternatives to their actions. National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act: was approved October 2nd, 1968, allowed for the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Interior to study and submit materials for proposal. It describes limitations for control of lands and for dealing with the disposition of lands and minerals of the Federal ownership. Lacey Act: this act authorizes the Secretary of Interior to adopt aid in restoring game and other birds in parts of the U.S. where they are scarce and becoming extinct. This act was originally adapted in 1900. U.S Marine Mammal Protection Act: was enacted on October 21st 1972. With certain exceptions, the take of the mammals in the U.S. waters and by the U.S. citizens on the high seas and the importation of the marine mammals and marine mammal products in the U.S. Fisheries Conservation and Management Act(1976): established a 200 mile fishery conservation zone which was subsequently dropped and changed into the Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ). Federal Land Policy and Management Act(1976): provides us with the tools that we need to cooperatively and creatively manage public lands and during the process, get rid of the notion that that a variety of issues and resources cannot co-exist. Rachel Carson Rachel Carson grew up in Springs dale, Pennsylvania. Rachel graduated from Pennsylvania College for Women in 1929, studied at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, and received her MA in zoology from Johns Hopkins University in 1932. Her first job was at the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries writing radio scripts during the Depression. After 15 years she was named Editor and Chief of all publications for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. She wrote her first book "Under the Sea-wind" (1941) and then also published her prize winning book "The Sea Around Us" in 1952. In 1952 Carson decided to move away from government service to devote her time to her writing. In 1962, Carson wrote a book, "Silent Spring" challenging practices of agricultural scientists and the government. She was charged by the industry but spoke in front of Congress saying,"We are a vulnerable part of the natural world subject to the same damage as the rest of the ecosystem." Rachel Carson died in 1964 due to breast cancer; but still today she inspires our generation to protect nature and our world. From 1923 to 1927 and from 1931 to 1935 he was governor of Pennsylvania. John Muir John Muir was born in Dunbar, Scotland, on April 21, 1838. In 1894 he moved to the U.S. and bought farmland in Wisconsin. He attended the University of Wisconsin to study science and medicine but soon gave up studying medicine as his love of nature and plants grew. He traveled to California to work on a sheep farm. He spent the next six years exploring the Yosemite Valley where he kept a journal of scientific and personal observations. In 1880, after he returned from exploring in Alaska, Muir got married to Louie Wanda. They had two daughters in the next year and he decided to work for the next ten years to permanently supply for his wife and children. After he did this he decided to devote the rest of his life to observing nature. In 1980, Muir wrote articles trying to make Yosemite a National Park. As he succeeded to do so, he also became the president of this club until the day that he died. He wrote four famous books also, for example, "My First Summer In the Sierra" published in 1911. John Muir died on December 24th, 1914. Gifford Pinchot Gifford Pinchot was born in 1865 in Simsbury Connecticut. Pinchot graduated from Yale in 1889 and studied at the National Forestry School in Nancy, France, and in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. When he returned home he began his first systematic forestry work in the U.S. in 1892. In 1896 he was made a member of the National Forest Commission and the National Academy of Sciences. Pinchot also served as a member of the Public Lands Commission, which he initiated in 1903, and the Inland Waterways Commission (1908). In 1908 he became chairmen of the National Forest Commission and also he founded the Yale School of Forestry at New Haven, Conn., and also the Yale Summer School of Forestry at Milford, Pa. In 1903, Pinchot became professor of Forestry at Yale. Pinchot also assisted Theodore Roosevelt create the Bull Moose Party in 1912. From 1923 to 1927 and from 1931 to 1935 he was governor of Pennsylvania. GIfford Pinchot died on October 4th, 1946. Garrett Hardin Garrett Hardin was born April 21st, 1915. He was an american ecologist was warned many of the dangers of overpopulation. In 1936 he received a B.S. in zoology at University of Chicago and also a PhD in microbiology at Stanford University in 1941. In 1968, he came up with the idea of "Tragedy of the Commons", which called attention to what innocent U.S. citizens were starting to do to themselves and their environment. He is also known for Hardin's First Law of Human Ecology: "You cannot do only one thing", which expresses the interconnectedness of every action. Garrett Hardin died on September 14th 2003 Aldo Leopold Aldo Leopold was born in Burlington, Iowa in 1887. In 1909 he received a masters in Forestry at Yale University and after that he went to work for the U.S. Forest Service for 19 years. In 1928 he quit working for the U.S Forest Service so that he could travel around and do independent contract work which primarily involved wildlife game surveys throughout the states. In 1933 he was appointed Professor of Game Management in the Agricultural Economics Department at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Leopold taught at the University of Wisconsin until his death in 1948. In 1949, Leopold was recognized for his book, "A Sand County Almanac" which was said to recognize ecological attitude towards land and people. He was an internationally respected scientist and for his ecological foundations that he built. Sherwood Rowland & Mario Molina Sherwood Rowland was born on June 28th, 1927. He attended University of Chicago to study radio chemistry. In 1964, he became a chemistry professor at University of California, Irvine. Rowland began working with Molina in the early 1970's. Rowland was also elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1978 and served as president of the AAAS in 1993. Mario Molina was born on March 19th, 1943. Molina is a Mexican chemist and one of the most prominent precursors to the discovering of the Antarctic ozone hole. He was a co-recipient (along with Paul J. Crutzen and F. Sherwood Rowland) of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in elucidating the threat to the Earth's ozone layer of chlorofluorocarbon gases, becoming the first Mexican-born citizen to ever receive a Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Molina received a doctoral degree in Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. When he became a postdoctoral researcher at UC, Irvine, Rowland and Molina co-authored a paper on CFC's,they stated how they were a threat to the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Wangari Maathai Wangari Maathai was born in 1940. She was the founder of the Green Belt Movement and won the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize. "The first woman in East and Central Africa to earn a doctorate degree, Professor Maathai became chair of the Department of Veterinary Anatomy and an associate professor in 1976 and 1977 respectively. In both cases, she was the first woman to attain those positions in the region." She was an author of four books also, for example "Unbowed: A Memoir". This women is a huge inspiration to multicultural women around the world and has done great things to try to help her home town Kenya, Africa. Thomas Malthus Thomas Malthus was born on February 14th, 1766. He studied a wide range of subjects at Jesus College, Cambridge in 1784 graduating in 1788. He became a professor of history and political economy at the East India Company’s college at Haileybury, Hertfordshire. Malthus was an English economist and demographer who was best known for his theory that "population growth will always tend to outrun the food supply and that betterment of humankind is impossible without stern limits on reproduction". Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27th, 1858. At age 42 Teddy Roosevelt became the youngest U.S. president in history. He was widely known for his progressive policies and ecological conservationism. Roosevelt also won the Nobel Peace Prize for his part in ending the Russo-Japanese War. Teddy lived a more active life than most of the U.S. presidents and he also published more than 25 books about a range of subjects, including history, biology, geography and philosophy. Theodore Roosevelt died on January 6th, 1919. E.O. Wilson E.O. Wilson was born June 10th, 1929 is an American biologist, researched, theorist, naturalist, and author. He specialized in myrmecology, the study of ants, on which he is considered to be the world's leading authority. Edward O. Wilson, referring to ants, had said that "Karl Marx was right, socialism works, it is just that he had the wrong species". He enjoyed studying ants with Bert Holldobler. In Wilson's book "On Human Nature", he wrote about a 'myth' as a "a meaningful placement that celebrates extraordinary moments of shared heritage" that was considered a evolutionary epic.
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