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Computer Hardware

Hebat, Vinayak, Adam, Daniel

Daniel Gao

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware The Power Supply The Motherboard Thank You
Watching! The main components that make a computer a computer are:
The Power Supply
The CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The Motherboard
The Various Methods of Memory Storage
RAM, ROM, Disk Drives and:
The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) Main Components
to a Computer The CPU
(Central Processing Unit) Computer Memory PART I : Permanent Storage Areas PART II : Temporary Storage Areas Computer Memory The BIOS
(Basic Input Output System) The Power Supply Unit (PSU)
supplies the computer with
the electricity needed to
power the computer

It converts AC (alternating current) to low-voltage DC (direct current) for the internal components

It also regulates the voltage to eliminate spikes and surges common in most electrical systems

Power supplies are rated in terms of the number of watts they generate. The more powerful the computer, the more watts it can provide to components The motherboard connects
many of the crucial
components of a computer
such as CPU, RAM,
video card, sound card, hard drive, disk drives, ports and external peripherals.

The main difference which varies certain motherboards from each other is the firmware installed such as the BIOS and ROM.

Motherboards can also vary by their socket types and ports. For example, a 64-bit processor requires a different socket than a 32-bit processor.

Motherboards have varying numbers of different ports, which means that the hard drives and memory can be expanded. Random access memory (RAM) is the best known form of computer memory.

RAM is considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly.

2 Main types of RAM:

In the most common form of computer memory, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), a transistor and a capacitor are paired to create a memory cell.

DRAM will lose information unless a CPU or memory controller refreshes it. Data in these chips are not lost when power is removed and is difficult to change or unchangeable.

The BIOS is stored as firmware and in a ROM attached to the motherboard. Firmware and disk drives are considered permanent information storage areas. Read-only memory (ROM), also known as firmware, is an integrated circuit programmed with specific data when it is manufactured. Carries out the instructions of a program

There are four steps to a modern CPU’s operation:
Write Information The most common CPU size in computers today is 32-bit and 64-bit.

Today, CPUs are made of silicon which is a semi-conductor that conducts electricity better the hotter it gets. One of the most common uses of Flash memory is for the basic input/output system of your computer, commonly known as the BIOS.

The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a standard firmware interface.

BIOS software is installed in every computer, and is the first software run by a computer when it is powered on. There are two main components of a CPU:
Control Unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

The control unit is responsible for Fetching, decoding, writing back information and storing results.

It connects the CPU to the memory and the input/output devices.

There can be many ALUs in a CPU to perform different functions such as addition and multiplication using a variety of gates (switches).

The ALU gets the code from the control unit and then does the required calculation and sends it back to the control unit. The CPU
(Central Processing Unit) Computer Memory PART I : Permanent Storage Areas SSD/solid state drive is a storage data that requires no rotating magnetic disks or optical data. Instead, it uses non-moving flash memory technology. The advantages of an SSD is that it uses less power, has faster data access, and it has high reliability. The disadvantages of a SSD over a magnetic hard drive is that it is costly.

Compared to another hard drive technology, it is ten times the cost.

The second disadvantage is that it requires a lot of capacity. A hard drive, also referred as the hard disk, is a component in modern computers that is used to permanently store data.

There are two types of hard drives, external and internal hard drives.

The internal hard drive is the main storage area in the computer. It can store the operating system, files and executable programs.

The external hard drive can be connected to the computer through a USB port while the internal hard drive must be plugged to the mother board. Computer Memory PART I : Permanent Storage Areas PART II : Temporary Storage Areas Computer Memory Second type of RAM is Static RAM

Static RAM uses flip-flops to hold information.

Static takes more space but does not need to be refreshed.

Static RAM is large, fast and expensive while dynamic RAM is more compact, less expensive and slower.

Static RAM is used to create the CPU's speed-sensitive cache, while dynamic RAM forms the larger system RAM space. The main purpose of the BIOS is to load and unload operating systems on the hard drive.

The BIOS is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip on the motherboard, meaning it is non-erasable and can store information without power.

Each copy of a BIOS is specifically interfaced with various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system. The BIOS
(Basic Input Output System) Computer Memory PART I : Permanent Storage Areas The head is metal piece wrapped in a wire.

This metal piece moves over the magnetic fields of the platter, producing/converting to magnetism (force of attraction and repulsion between substances, mainly iron and certain other metals due to the motion of electric charges).

This magnetism causes a current which is measured and transformed into a binary number. How Does A Hard Drive Work?
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