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Transcript of ESL Education
English as a second language (ESL)
The study of English by nonnative speakers in an English-speaking environment.
4.7 million students were English language learners (ELL)
California- State with largest amount of students participating in ESL programs
Texas- State with the second largest amount of students participating in ESL programs
Florida- Third State with largest amount of students participating in ESL programs
80% of ELLs are Hispanic
In 2010, Hispanics had the highest level of drop-out rates out of all race/ethnic groups.
59% of Hispanic drop-outs had poor English language skills
In 2008 only 7% of teachers were Hispanic vs. 84% White
Increase Bilingual ESL teachers
Students can ask questions if they have ESL teachers who speak the same native-language
Inform parents of ELLs face-to-face AND in their native language about their rights to waive the SEI program for their children.
A lot of non-English speaking parents might not be aware of their options.
Many non-English speaking parents have low reading skills even in their own native language.
Create after school Bilingual tutoring and activities to support ELLs with academic work and social skills.
Keep classroom sizes small in order to provide individual attention/support to the students.
603 CMR 14:00 Education of English Learners Regulations
Applies to publicly funded elementary and secondary education programs, including all Massachusetts public school districts, charter schools, and collaborative education programs.
Each school district should implement procedures to identify ELLs and assess their English proficiency.
Parents or guardian can request an assessment of their child’s English proficiency
All ELLs should be provided sheltered English immersion instruction in an English learning classroom.
Students who are granted a waiver are placed in a Bilingual program
Parental waiver eligibility:
Child possesses good English language skills
Child is 10 years old or older
Children with special individual needs
English language classroom teachers are required to be literate and fluent in English
Massachusetts General Laws
Chapter 71A: English Language Education in Public Schools
Revised in 2002
All students should be taught English by being taught in English in an English learning classroom.
English learners should be educated through SEI and should normally not exceed one year (max-3 years).
Local schools should be permitted to mix students of different ages but with similar English proficiency.
Local schools are encouraged to mix different native-language groups but with the same English fluency.
Once students can do regular school work in English, they should no longer be classified as ELL and should be moved to a regular English classroom.
Benefits of Bilingual Education
2001 No Child Left Behind Act
Requires all public schools receiving federal funds to give students an annual standardized test.
Schools are focusing their attention on the academic achievement of traditionally under-served groups of children.
Seeks to reduce the achievement gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students.
Students are expected to reach 100% proficiency in English language arts.
ELLs are allowed to take assessment in their native-language for 3 years.
1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
Provided funds for educational programs, public or private, that were considered essential for children and public education, including Bilingual Education.
1968 Bilingual Education Act
First Federal legislation to address the needs of non-English speaking students.
Provided supplemental funding for school districts interested in establishing programs to meet the needs of people with limited English abilities.
Students had to be low-income to be eligible for Bilingual programs.
Sheltered English Immersion (SEI)
California, Arizona and Massachusetts are the only 3 states that use SEI program and restrict Bilingual education
Massachusetts adopted the SEI model as a result of the 2002 ballot initiative
61.25% voted that all public school students should be taught English by being taught all subjects in English and being placed in English classrooms
Replaced Bilingual education
Curriculum is designed for children that are learning the English language
Greater emphasis on English language acquisition instead of academic content
The program instructs students to speak, read, and write fluently in English
It focuses on oral language development (academic and social), vocabulary, language structures, culture and literacy
Students should be enrolled in a SEI program until MEPA assessments indicate that the student is capable of performing grade level academic work in English.
Create schools that provide strong support for struggling English Learners:
Boston International High School
Small school for ELLs in grades 9–12
Provides extra support
Provides after school tutoring and athletic programs
Newcomers Academy Program
Newly-arrived immigrants that do no speak English and have a gap in their schooling.
Create Counseling Centers within schools to provide emotional support to English language learners and family members.
In the 2009 U.S. Supreme Court decision, Horne v. Flores, the majority opinion stated, "Research on ELL instruction indicates there is documented, academic support for the view that SEI is significantly more effective than bilingual Education.
The findings of the Arizona Dpt of Education Study of 70,000 students enrolled in Bilingual and SEI programs revealed that students enrolled in structured English immersion programs consistently scored higher than those students enrolled in bilingual programs.
Arizona created waiver provision allowing parents or legal guardians of ELL Students to make a request for a waiver of the structured English immersion requirement (2000). In turn, more than 7,600 Arizona students in grades two through eight participated in waiver program
In 2000, there was an upward trend of Stanford-9 achievement scores in California during first two years of implementation of proposition 227. Proponents used this to fuel their position. However, although the report stated that there was an up rise in Stanford-9 scores (coincidentally implemented in 1998), so did all students across the state. Researchers explained that it was erroneous to attribute the rise in Stanford-9 Scores. Further, scientists questioned the legitimacy of the initial claims and asserted that the rise in California's test scores could have been attributed to several possible causes, including reduced class sizes, the emphasis on a newly mandated test.
Hispanic adults represent a significant proportion of the low-literate population in the United States and are thus a group of great potential concern to educators. Attempts to increase the English literacy levels of this group are limited by lack of empirical data regarding variables that affect Hispanics' participation in educational programs (Hayes, 1989, p.47).
A Variety of ESL programs have the challenging task of trying to increase the English literacy levels of this populations; however, such attempts are hampered by limited understanding of the variables that affect the educational participation in Hispanic Adults (Hayes, 1989, p.48)
The limited English language skills of many Hispanics continue to constraint the education progress and economic advancement of both recent immigrants and long-term residents.
Adult Hispanic Barriers & Constraints
ELLs who were taught in their native language tended to attain a higher level of oral language proficiency in both L1 and English, which positively impacted their math or reading achievement (As cited on Tong, 2011, p.88).
Research based evidence proves that oral language proficiency in both languages is an important determinant of reading comprehension in English (As cited on Tong, 2011, p.88).
The quality of instructors is important to accommodate the needs of ELLs in order to ensure high levels of English language proficiency and literary development; however, rigorous research is needed to identify effective instruction to build a solid foundation of oral competence and reading skills for ELLS (Tong, 2011, p. 88)
The Pew Hispanic Center, 2009, reported that 89% of Hispanics report that a college education important for for success in life (Perry, 2012, p.478).
According to the Pew Hispanic Center, only 48% of Hispanics plan to attain a college degree due to:
Financial pressures to support family 74%
Poor English - 49%
Dislike of School - 42%
Not enough ESL teachers to give more attention to students in SEI Classrooms
Does not make use of students' native language in the classroom while developing English
restricts the use of a students' primary language when instructing ELL Students
The debate over the efficacy of programs for students with limited English proficiency has become part of the political agenda
Voters had a direct impact on English language education policy. Proposition 227 was enacted by the vote of the people instead of by the educators and experts in the field.
Many argue that there is no evidence that Statewide English-only initiatives improve the learning outcomes of ELLs
In Arizona and Massachusetts, before being placed in a bilingual classroom, students under the age of ten are required to demonstrate good English language skills by oral evaluation or by means of a standardized test.
Some research suggests that, contrary to popular belief, very young students are not typically fast language learners and that optimal language acquisition begins around age 9 (Gibbons 1994).
Arizona DOE study suggest that older students (ten and older) stand to gain the most from SEI programs
SEI programs are even more advantageous than bilingual programs during the middle grades
Bilingual students are more than a year behind their SEI counterparts in the 7th & 8th grade, consistent in the subjects of reading, math and language
Statistics of students living in homes where Spanish is the primary language favored SEI
Second language acquisition requires cognitive processes that are separate and different from those required to acquire one's native language. Therefore, students who enter formal operation stages of their lives stand to benefit the most from SEI programs
SAT9 Achievement Data
SAT9 Achievement Data
Spanish Spoken @ Home
Benefits of Bilingual Education
1974 Amendment to the Bilingual Education Act of 1968
Mandated school districts to provide Bilingual education
Instructions are to be provided in English and native-language of the student.
Removed income restrictions
"Lau" decision (Lau vs. Nichols)
School districts must provide remedies for non-English-speaking children so that they can have access to meaningful AND equal education.
Equal Education Opportunity Act
Extended Lau’s ruling to all school district regardless of Federal or State funding.
1988 Bilingual Education Act
Gave local school district some flexibility
Gave extra funds for alternative programs
A 3-year limit was established
Gave extra funds for the training of qualified teachers
Create community career centers that helps English language learners with resumes, job search and internships, etc.
Establish programs that encourage English language learners to think about higher education and helps with College applications, FASFA, SAT.
Commit more money to empirical research to be able build a better foundation for ELL students across the country.