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Organic chemistry - the chemistry of carbon

AQA C3 unit 5 2013
by

Paul Scarbrough

on 1 February 2016

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Transcript of Organic chemistry - the chemistry of carbon

Structure of Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic acids have the same basic structure as the Alkanes and the Alcohols, but the functional group is different.

The functional group is -COOH
Structure of Alcohols
The alcohols are a group of chemicals that have similar structures and properties.

Their structure (and names) are like the Alkanes, you just remove one of the H atoms and replace it with the -OH group.

This is called the functional group and it is what makes the alcohols different from other groups.
Structure of Esters
Again this is a closely related group of organic compounds.

If you replace the H atom in the -COOH group in a carboxylic acid with another hydrocarbon group you get an Ester.

All esters have the functional group -COO- in their structural formulae.
Uses and properties of alcohols
Alcohols are clear, colourless liquids with low boiling points.
Organic Issues
Advantage or disadvantage?

In the UK most of the cost of an alcoholic drink is tax.
People can become dependent on alcohol
Alcohol can help to relieve stress
Alcohol use can be linked to high blood pressure
Alcohol use has been linked to heart disease
Biodiesel increases crop prices
Using biodiesel is carbon neutral
Growing crops for ethanol production uses farmland
The chemistry of carbon
Organic Chemistry
Alkane
Alcohol
functional
group
functional
group
functional
group
All alcohols will react with sodium to produce Hydrogen.
All alcohols will dissolve in water to form a neutral solution.
Alcohols burn well in oxygen, giving out plenty of heat.
Sodium ethoxide
Alcohols are good solvents, dissolving many compounds that are not soluble in water.
They evaporate easily and that makes them useful for glues, printing inks,deodorants and aftershaves and perfume.
Alcohols are the starting point for making other chemicals like esters.
They are useful as fuels.
Ethanol is the part of an alcoholic drink that gets you drunk!
If you oxidise an alcohol you make a carboxylic acid.

ethanol ethanoic acid

methanol methanoic acid
How do you make vinegar?
[O]
The oxidation can be either by exposure to microbes in the air or chemically by using an oxidising agent like potassium dichromate sol.
How do you make an ester?
Carboxylic acids react reversibly with alcohols to make esters.
Naming esters
Esters are named from the reactants that make them.
eg.
What would methanoic acid and ethanol make?

methanoic acid + ethanol
ethyl methanoate
Carboxylic acids are "weak" acids.

This means that a solution of a carboxylic acid at the same concentration as hydrochloric acid will have a higher pH.

This is because when they ionise in water, not all of the hydrogen ions are present in the solution. The only partially ionise.

Stong acids completely ionise.
Esters are volatile compounds (they evaporate easily) with distinctive smells. They are used as flavourings and perfumes.
ethyl pentanoate
isoamyl acetate
methyl butanoate
Biodiesel
What is the link?
OH
3
ester
alcohol
is oxidised
to carboxylic
acid
they react together
to make an ester
Full transcript