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Expressing Time

grammar lessons
by

Joseph Wei

on 15 March 2014

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Transcript of Expressing Time

Expressing Time
Temporal adverbials
Past
John came here three months ago.
It rained heavily the day before yesterday.
A car accident took three lives last week.
Things used to be simpler in the past.
Non-past
John will stay with us in the next few days.
We have a meeting tomorrow/next Wednesday.
(
Compare:
John was invited to visit the company. He accepted the job offer the (very) next day.)
An official announcement will be made in the coming days.
Relative tenses: part 1
Perfective
John has been teaching for twenty years.
I have developed a taste in music since I was young/over the years.
The job will have been done by the time we come back from our vacation.
John went out. He had locked the door.
(
Compare:
John locked the door, and then went out.)
Progressive
We were watching TV then/at 9 last night.
We were having dinner when John came to visit us.
(
Compare:
John came to visit us while we were having dinner.)
What will you be doing ten years from now?
Modal auxiliaries
'Can'
Relative tenses: part 2
'Must'
John can lift the box.
John could lift the box when he was young/ten years ago.
She can (probably)/may/might/could (possibly) be a student in our school.
She can/may/might/could have been a student in our school before/three years ago.
John must/has to study harder for the coming exam, or he will fail it.
We had to walk all the way home yesterday since the car wouldn't start.
She must/should be a hardworking student as indicated by her report card.
John must/should have been a teacher before he retired, judged by his way of talking.
Subordinate clause
John said that he loved her.
(
Compare:
John said that he had loved the girl.)
John kissed the girl that he loved.
(
Compare:
John kissed the girl that he had loved.)
John was said to have kissed the girl.
Galileo said that the world is round.
We will visit the old man who taught us in high school.
Participial constructions
Called early, John ate a quick breakfast.
Calling early, John found Mary at home.
Having done(=after doing) the homework, John was allowed to have fun outside.
While (=Being) interviewed on TV last night, the minister mentioned that he would be retiring soon.
Irregular patterns
Past subjunctive
Present subjunctive
I wish I were a bird.
If I were a bird, I would fly away.
If you had studied, you would have passed the test.
It is time that we left for Taipei (now).
She insisted (that) everything be done in her own way.
(
Compare:
she insisted on/upon doing everything in her own way.)
John ignored the doctor's advice that the tumor be removed immediately.
It is vital/crucial/of vital importance that we follow the safety procedures.
'Now' and 'forever'
'Now'
Factual and habitual
John is watching TV now.
We are conducting a survey to measure our effectiveness.
John is falling in love with a girl and he really loves her.
Students now know that they have a day off tomorrow because of the typhoon.
A dog barks.
The bullet train in Japan travels at 320 kilometers per hour.
John goes to school by bus every day/as usual.
We always/usually/often/sometimes/seldom/never walk to school.
order
command
advise
recommend
suggest
ask
demand
insist
Verbs
Adjectives
important
vital
crucial
critical
significant
imperative
advisable
Adverbial clauses
If/When John comes, I will discuss the issues with him. However, I wonder whether he will come.
When John came, I was in the library googling for more information. (
Compare:
John came while I was in the library googling for more information.)
When John came to the party, Mary left immediately.
Since I was young, I have made mistakes. (
Compare:
Since I was young, I made mistakes.)
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