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Nutrients, Digestion and Metabolism

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Saud Badar

on 9 January 2015

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Transcript of Nutrients, Digestion and Metabolism

Nutrients, Digestion and Metabolism
Digestion
A closer look
at the main parts of our digestive system

By Saud Badar and Usman Kazmi
Mouth
The Journey Starts Here
1. The mouth
Two types of digestion occurs here
Physical Digestion
Chewing food breaks it up into small pieces making it easier to swallow
The tongue moves the food around until it forms a ball called a
bolus.

Chemical Digestion
Enzymes

in your saliva called

amylase
breaks down

carbohydrates

(large starch molecules) into smaller glucose molecules
The Esophagus
Connects the throat
(pharynx)
with the stomach.
The esophagus runs behind the windpipe
(trachea)
and
heart
, and in front of the spine.
2. The Esophagus
This muscular squeezes the food from your mouth down into your stomach by muscular contraction called

peristalsis
Squeeze
,
Squeeze
,
Squeeze
That is why we can eat while standing on our head
The Stomach
3. The Stomach
The Stomach's Job is to...
J-shaped muscular bag

that stores the food you eat,

breaks

it down into tiny pieces.
Mixes food with digestive juices that contain

enzymes
to

break down

proteins and lipids
.
Acid in the stomach kills

bacteria
.
Food found in the stomach is called

chyme
.
Proteins
stay the longest in the stomach and they are broken into

protease


Pancreas
The Pancreas creates enzymes that help to break down
fats, carbs and proteins.
It also makes a substance that
neutralizes
stomach acid
Gallbladder

Bile is
stored
here in the gallbladder until it is required. It is
released
into the small intestine to break down
FATS
.
The Small Intestine
4. The Small Intestine
The small intestine are roughly

7 meters long
Lining of intestine walls has finger-like projections called
villi
, to increase

surface area.
Nutrients from the food pass into the

bloodstream

through the small intestine walls.
Absorbs: 80% ingested water,

VITAMINS
,

MINERALS
,
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids

The Large Intestine
Watch out it may end up getting messy
Large Intestine
5. Large Intestine
The
large intestine
(or colon) is used to
absorb
WATER
from the waste material leftover and to produce
vitamin K
and some
B vitamins
using the helpful bacteria that live here.

The Rectum
6. The Rectum (or anus)
All leftover waste is compacted and stored at the end of the large intestine called the
rectum
.
When full, the
anal sphincter
loosens and the waste, called
feces
, passes out of the body through the
anus
.

All Six Essential Nutrients
Carbohydrates (Macro-Nutrients)
Complex: can be broken down into two subcategories starches and dietary fiber
Starches:
Dietary Fiber
-Insoluble
-Soluble

Simple Carbohydrates: The basic unit of a carb is a monosaccharide or simple sugar
Proteins (Macro-Nutrient)
Incomplete Proteins:
What is it?
Carbohydrates
(Complex Carbohydrates)
Starches:
What are they?
What types of food contains starch?
Fun Fact
Dietary Fiber:
What are they?
What types of food contains starch?
Insoluble Fiber:
Will not dissolve in water.
Sponge
Lower the risk of colon
Soluble Fiber:
Makes you feel full
Helps control your weight
Carbohydrates

(Simple)
Simple Carbohydrates:
What are they?
What types of food contain Simple Carbs?
Simple Carbohydrates:
Fructose
Maltose
Lactose
What is it?
Contain an adequate amount of all of the essential amino acids
Must not lack even
one
essential amino acid
The nine essential amino acids are:
Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine.
I can prononuce these words so i wont try
Complete Proteins:
Lacks one or more essential amino acids
Can be referred to as
partial proteins
Must be in
equal proportions
to be called...

Fats (Macro-Nutrients)
What is it?
Can be broken down into:
Saturated
Monosaturated
Polyunsaturated

Cholesterol
(isn't fat but similar)
HDL (high-density lipoprotein)
LDL (low-density lipoprotein)
Fats
(The Three Types of Fats)
Saturated (Bad):
Raises LDL (bad) cholesterol
Found in Beef, pork and lamb etc
Has
No
Double Bonds
Bad or Good?
Poly
unsaturated (Best):
Lower your risk of heart disease and stroke
Reduce bad cholesterol levels
Has
MANY
double bonds
Good or Bad?
Mono
saturated (Good):
Hydrogenation:
Oils that are liquids at room temperature. In the food industry, hydrogen is added to oils to make them more solid, or 'spreadable'.
This fat in these oils are called
TRACE
fat which is supposed to be the
WORST
type of fat.
Same pros as polyunsaturated fats
Has
ONE
double bond
Fats
(Cholesterol)
Cholesterol:
performs three main functions


It helps make the outer coating of cells
Makes bile acids that help digest food
Makes Vitamin D and hormones

LDL:
BAD
cholesterol
Contributes to
plaque
that can
clog
arteries
HDL:
GOOD
cholesterol
Removes
LDL cholesterol from the
arteries
.
Acts as a
scavenger
,
Carries LDL cholesterol away from the
arteries
and back to the
liver
Vitamins (Micro-Nutrients)
What is it?
Water-soluble:
Vitamins that
dissolve
in water
Passes easily into the
bloodstream
Fat-soluble:
Vitamins that are
absorbed
and
transported
by
fat
.
Minerals (Micro-Nutrients)
What is it?
Minerals:

Are
inorganic
substances that are found in soil and rocks
The body needs to survive and carry out daily functions
Minerals keep you
healthy
and have key roles in several body functions.

There are
three
types of minerals
Major Minerals:
Are minerals needed in
relative
amounts
Trace Minerals:
Are minerals needed in very
small
amounts,
Just as important as other nutrients.
Electrolytes:

Maintains
the body’s fluid balance.
These include potassium, sodium and chloride
Water (Micro-Nutrients)???
Water:
Is a
carrier
Water removes waste products such as
toxins

Metabolism
Metabolism What is it?
Metabolism:
Is a collection of chemical reactions
Converts the
fuel in the food
into specific
energy
we need
Specific
proteins
controls what reaction occur in our body
Metabolism
starts when we were
born
and stops when we
die
So how does it work on us...
1. Plants:
A green plant takes energy from the sunlight
Use cholorophyll to change that energy into sugars and C02
Photosynthesis

2. Carnivorous
When we eat the
plant
or other
carnivorous
that ate plants before-hand
They take the energy (in form of sugar) and other vital cell-building chemical
The next step is to
break down
these sugar so that our body can use them
So how does Metabolism work on us...
3. Digestive System:
Enzymes
break proteins down into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into simple sugars.
These substance can be used by the body later onward when
required
.
They are absorbed by the
blood
then transported to the
cells
.
Enzymes in the cells act to speed up or regulate the chemical reactions involved "
metabolizing
" these compounds.
During these processes, the energy from these compounds can be released for use by the body or stored in body tissues, especially in the liver, muscles, and body fat.
Metabolism (A Balancing Act)
Metabolism:
Metabolism is basically
a balancing act
It build body storage to save energy
Then it
breaks down
the body storage to use energy
Anabolism (or constructive metabolism):
Its all about
building
and
storing
.
It supports the growth of cells, maintenance of body tissue and storage of energy
During anabolism, small molecules are turned into
larger
and
more

complex
molecules
Catabolism (or destructive metabolism):
The process that provides all the
energy
required for each individual cell
The waste is released from the body through skin, liver and intestine
It basically breaks down the large molecules into small molecule so the body can use them
How fast is your Metabolism?
Why are some peoples Metabolism faster than others
Hormones:
Thyroxine
a hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, plays a key role in determining how
fast
or
slow
the chemical reactions of metabolism proceed in a person's body.
Some people produces less of this substance thus there metabolism is slower
The pancreas:
The pancreas secretes
hormones
that tells the body is time for anabolism or catabolism.
Ex:- If we eat what type of hormones does the pancreas release?
usually more anabolic activity occurs because eating increases the level of glucose the body's most important fuel in the blood. The pancreas senses this increased level of glucose and releases the hormone insulin, which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities.
How fast is your Metabolism?
The Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR):
What is it?
Is a measure of the rate at which a person's body burns energy, in the form of calories, while at rest.
Your BMR is an estimate of how many calories you'd burn if you were to do nothing but rest for 24 hours. It represents the minimum amount of energy needed to keep your body functioning, including breathing and keeping your heart beating.
Higher BMR= less chance of being fat
Slower BMR= more chance of being fat
Bibliography
"Basal metabolic rate." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 July 2014. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_metabolic_rate>
"What are proteins and what do they do?."Genetics Home Reference. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2014. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/protein>.
"Functions of water in human body."http://www.nestle-waters.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2014. <http://www.nestle-waters.com/healthy-hydration/water-fonctions-in-human-body>.
"Carbohydrates ." SparkNotes. SparkNotes, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://www.sparknotes.com/health/carbohydrates/section2.rhtml>.
"Minerals: Their Functions and Sources: Healthwise Medical Information on eMedicineHealth." eMedicineHealth. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://www.emedicinehealth.com/minerals_their_functions_and_sources-health/article_em.htm>.
"Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources."Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=ta3868>.
"Gallbladder." InnerBody. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://www.innerbody.com/image_digeov/dige04-new.html>.
"Role of fats in the diet." Imace. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://www.imace.org/facts-on-fat/role-of-fats-in-the-diet/>.
What factor influence a person's BMR?
The factor's are....
Genetics
Health problems
YOU CAN CHANGE YOUR BMR
Body composition
Full transcript