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Introduction to Psychology

An introduction to Stage 1 SACE Psychology. Uses "Psychology: Stage 1 for South Australia" by Linda Carter and John Grivas as a guide.
by

Gerald Carey

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology
Definitions
Psychology as a profession
Scientific nature of Psychology
Non-scientific explanations of behaviour
Steps in Psychological Research
Behaviour
Four levels of understanding behaviour
• Biological level
• Basic processes level
• Person level
• Socio-cultural level
Is it the same as Psychiatry?
Types of psychologists
Skills and competencies
Scientific Method
Empirical Evidence
Replication of Research
Psychics
Astrology
Identify the research problem
Formulate a hypothesis
Design the method
Collect the data
Analyse the data
Interpret the data
Report the findings
For example: Clinical psychologists:
Psychological assessment and diagnosis
Treatment
Research, teaching and evaluation
Using the Scientific Method
Writing a formal report
Referencing
What's your reaction to this?
What did you feel?
What parts of your body were affected?
Can you say why you felt this way?
Why do others feel differently?
What were you thinking as you watched?
Listen to this: (slightly less than half way)
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a genetic fault. It gradually results is loss of control of muscle control and inhibitions. It generally leads to death 20 years after the symptoms begin. There is no cure.
http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2011/01/hrt_20110110.mp3
Why did those people rescue the others in the car?
Would you have done the same?
Does it mean you are a bad person if you don't?
How would the survivors be affected?
From the recent Queensland floods
Read this recent research:
THURSDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Whether it's a maths test or a semester exam that's got your teen's stomach tied up in knots, a simple intervention might ease their anxiety and improve their scores.

New research, published in the Jan. 14 issue of Science, found that when students spent 10 minutes writing about their test anxiety and fears just before a test, their scores went up. And, the biggest improvements were seen in teens who were most stressed before testing.
Do you get stressed before tests?
What do you normally do?
Do you think this would help?
Do you think this is a good source of information?
The person who owns this vehicle says that he gets an adrenaline rush when he drives it.
What does this mean?
He says he is hooked on the rush. How would he know?
Welcome to Psychology at Stage 1
What do you want to know about:
The new SACE
Course content
Assessment
Homework
Psychology itself
Other things....?
Introduce yourself:
In a 1,000,000 words or less...
Brainstorm the word:
Psychology?
What is it?
Who does it involve?
Where is it used?
Why is it important?
Are there problems with it?
Tell me what you know.
Show me what you know:
Psychology is a science.
Tell me what these words mean:
Hypothesis
Variables
Results
Conclusions
Psychology also uses Maths (mainly statistics)
Show me that you know what these words mean:
Mean
Median
Range
Harder:
Standard deviation
Frequency tables
Histograms
Bar graphs
How would you deal with the fact that knew what a disease was going to do to you?
How do people deal with friends or relatives that have psychological disorders?
How could you help someone who is a carer?
"methodical in procedure or plan"
"application of intelligence to the acquistion of knowledge"
From the textbook:
"Psychology is the systematic study of thoughts, feelings and behaviours and the factors that influence these."
"to form or have in the mind"
"an emotional state or reaction"
"anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation"
Unlike thoughts and feelings, this can be easily measured.
"something that helps produce or influence a result"
Four Levels of explanation of behaviour:
Biological
Basic Processes
Person
Social
What's happening at a cellular level or between cells
Processes that are common to all people
e.g. possible thoughts and feelings that occur when we are sad, happy or aggressive
Focuses on the individual differences in behaviour.
Three different reactions to one name
Examines how our behaviour is influenced in groups and in different cultures.
cultural
Are any kind of response that can be seen and measured.
Thoughts and feelings are internal responses and are difficult to measure.
So they are not called behaviour.
Do Activity 1.1 (p3)
Draw up a table of comparison between psychology and psychiatry:
Use these headings (read page 4-5):
qualifications
years of study
treatment methods
what they can and can't do.
So, what is psychology?
Academic
Clinical
Clinical
Neuropsychologist
Community
Counselling
Educational
Forensic
Organisational
Sport
Research
Skim read pages 7-9.
Do Activity 1.3, p12
For example: Forensic Psychologists:
Being an expert witness in court
Advising parole boards
Treating offenders
Assessing victims of crime
Carrying out research
As compared to commonsense psychology
It is a systematic approach to doing psychological research. It involves collecting empirical evidence.
As compared to personal experience
...is data collected by observation or experiment. This should mean that the data is free from personal biases...sometimes...
As compared to one-off experiences or experiments
This boy's aunt died recently.
He thought this photo looked like her ghost.
...involves repeating a study to ensure the results are reliable and generalisable
What is your explanation for this?
"The position and movement of the stars and planets influences our behaviour".
No scientific empirical evidence exists that supports this statement - so why do people believe it?
Someone who supposedly has supernatural powers associated with the mind.
Includes:
esp
telepathy
clairvoyance
precognition
Again, there is no scientific evidence in support of any of these powers.
James Randi debunks psychic surgery
See table on page 15 for key differences between scientfic and non-scientific approaches.
Follow the Scientific Method used in this film...
Critical skill in all subjects.
See page 25-26 or the SACE board website
Must know how to
cite work within the body of an essay
prepare a list of references for books, journals, newspapers, websites and videos.
please note: students who put: "www.google.com" and "www.wikipedia.com" in their list of references will get an "E" in that part of the assessment.
also students who put "www.writemyessay" as a reference will get an "N".
Empirical evidence
Mind-map your understanding of this definition.
Seven steps to mind mapping
Psychiatrists
Psychologists
Ethics
When doing studies in psychology, the researcher must consider and deal with any ethical issues involved.
Participants should not be placed at risk of harm or injury and should not be subject to severe distress.
All students need to know the following things about participants rights:
Why? Because it is important for your safety and....
...every
assessment task you do will include questions about ethics
Participants Rights
confidentiality
voluntary participation
withdrawal rights
informed consent procedures
deception and debriefing
disclosure of results and conclusions
Data is private and should stay private.
Collected data should be destroyed when study is completed
Participants need to be informed of confidentiality procedures
No pressure to participate
No negative consequence for choosing not to participate
participants need to be fully informed at the start so they can decide if they want to participate
participants can withdraw at ANY time and for ANY reason
participants should be fully informed about the study and methods in writing and should complete a consent form
research on participants who are not adults requires legal consent from appropriate adult
Sometimes participants
need
to be deceived during research otherwise the results will be affected
Researchers must ensure that participants suffer no distress and are fully debriefed after the study.
Once the study is over the researcher must provide an opportunity for the participants to see the results and conclusions
Full transcript