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Unit 3: Lesson 7 : Digestion case study

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rebecca glasscock

on 15 April 2010

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Transcript of Unit 3: Lesson 7 : Digestion case study

Disclosure 1 Questions 1. How does your body digest diffrent types of food? Digestion of Carbohydrates: Digestion of Proteins: Digestion of Fats: Digestion of food begins in the mouth. The salavia in your mouth contains antibacterial compounds and various enzymes that break down food molecules. Teeth chop and grind food making the surface of the food smaller and easier for the digestion enzymes to start to work.Once swallowed food passes the Pharynx (throat) into the esophagus. Once food leaves the esophagus a muscle called lower esophageal sphincter closes off to prevent regurgitation. The strong muscles in the stomach churn the food in to chyme. Chyme is a semi fluid mixture ressembling porridge. The glands in the stomach wall secrete a blend of hydrochloric acid and various digestive enzymes. Chyme slowly exits the stomach and passes to the small intestine it consists of three sections the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. When chyme enters the duodenum hormones are released stimulating the gallbladder and ppancrease to release bile and pancreatic juice that further breaks down the food molecules. Most nutrients are digested in the small intestine and the remaining goes to the large intestine. The large intestine consists of 3 sections also they are cecum, colon and rectum. The main function of large intestine is to absorb all remaining water from the food waste and to compress the remaining matter into a feces. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth your saliva contains an enzyme called amylase. Amylase starts the breaking down of complex carbs into simpler types. When the carbohydrate reaches the stomach the amylase slows down as the glands in the stomach release digestive acid that takes over the process. The carbohydrate is passed to the small intestine and another version of amylase is released by the pancreas into the first section of the small intestine cutting carhohydrates into simple sugars (maltose,lactose and sucrose). The carbohydrates continue further into the intestine where the enzymes maltase, lactase and sucrase chop up maltose,lactose and sucrose into smaller bits. This break down makes them easier to absorb and eventually turn into gluclose. Gluclose is absorbed through the inestinal wall into the blood stream where it is carried to the liver and is stored or distributed to cells throughout the body for energy. The breakdown of proteins begins in the stomach where they are attacked by hydrochloric acid that is secreted in the stomach's gastric acid. When broken down by the hydrochloric acid the protein becomes amino acids.Next the gastric enzymes pepsin- the only protese able to digest collogen starts to digest amino acid. Next the pancreas releases pancreatic protease enzyme trypin and chymotrypsin into the first half of the small intestine. Trypsin breaks a protein into a single amino acid molecules, through a process called hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is when a water molecule gets in between the two amino acids which are bonded together resulting in the bond breaking. After break down amino acids become small enough to pass through intestinal lining into tiny veins in the villi. Once in the blood amino acids are distributed by both red blood cells ad liquid plasma to tissue where thet are used in creation and repair of cell structure. Fat molecules enter the duodenum in a congealed mass. Making it impossible for pancreatic lipase to attack them.Complex fat molecules must be broken down into smaller more manageable molecules. Break down of fat molecules begins with digestive enzyme lipase. Lipase enters the duodenum from the pancreas- the main source of enzymes for digesting fats and protiens.Liapse chops up lipid molecules into fatty acid molecules and glycerol molecules.Due to lipase being water soluble it only attacks the surface of fat molecules.This is where bile comes into play, bile is produced in the liver but stored in the gallbladder. Bile enters the duodenum via the bile duct. The bile turns the fat into small droplets that can become suspended in the watery contents of the digestive tract. Allowing lipase to gain easier access to the fat molecules and accelerates the breakdown and digestion. Differentiate between extracellular and intracellular digestion? Intracellular- food is broken down when it is in the cell (engulfed by phagocytosis), nutrients are absorbed by sponges. Extracellular- food is broken down before nutrients are absorbed by or into cells. 2. Why Did kim tell her brother he was going to be sick after eating the raw pork? Kim likely told her brother he was going to be sick because she knew that raw pork is known to carry a parasitic disease called trichinosis and it can cause mild to sever illness. Raw pork Disclosure 2 Questions 1. What may have caused James to be sick, according to the symptoms? Since we know he ate the raw pork and now has diarrhea and stomach cramps I would conclude he has trichinosis. The current symptoms are the first symptoms to present with truchinosis. 2. Once you have determined a cause, explain what effects this would have on his body? If it is trichinosis he might still experiance nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue and abdominal discomfort. Then it could progress to headaches, fevers, chills, cough, eye swelling, aching joints and muscle pain, itchy skin, diarrhea or constipation. If inection is bad could experiance diffeculty coordinating movements and have heart and breathing problems. Most sever cases result in death. Stages of trichinosis disease Sources of information: http://www.annecollins.com/digestion-of-carbohydrate.htm
http://www.annecollins.com/digestive-system/digestion-of-protein.htm

http://www.annecollins.com/digestive-system/digestion-of-fats.htm

http://www.annecollins.com/food-digestion-guide.htm

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_intracellular_and_extracellular_digestion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichinosis

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/trichinosis/factsht_trichinosis.htm#symptoms

IMAGE LINKS

http://www.medindia.net/healthnetwork/images/uploaded-photos/1_82.gif

http://www.mcgill.ca/files/fitatmcgill/glucosecarba.png

http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.eastchester.k12.ny.us/schools/hs/teachers/fishman/images/amino_acid_structure_2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.eastchester.k12.ny.us/schools/hs/teachers/fishman/organics.htm&usg=__YjiR8hbFQP0mwc9jW1E9jfIeBsI=&h=344&w=514&sz=45&hl=en&start=2&sig2=ar5LJ3aG92m_O_s_Zt8x8g&itbs=1&tbnid=sVdqtENNrYk0JM:&tbnh=88&tbnw=131&prev=/images%3Fq%3Damino%2Bacid%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=Z0fGS8HRMoXMNdWs5Cs

http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/OrganSystems/images/fat.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_VqOF1ONaFCQ/SIZr3MywBYI/AAAAAAAACoc/9gpJTPNRPik/s400/raw+pork+chops.jpg

http://www.medical-look.com/diseases_images/trichinosis.gif
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