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Literacy in the Content Areas- Science

Useful strategies to promote literacy in the classroom.

Cole Wilson

on 7 February 2013

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Transcript of Literacy in the Content Areas- Science

Literacy in the Content Areas Study: National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP 2009) The Current Status of Literacy in our Schools Reading:
68% 4th, 69% 8th, and 64% are at/below grade level
67% 8th and 76% 12th are at/below grade level
Combined Lietarcy:
50% of graduates are unprepared
Comparable to Chile, Poland, Portugal, and Slovenia Adults 25+ Without a Diploma/GED Local Data Adults 18+ Lacking Basic Literacy Not talking about teaching phonics
Make texts accessible so students learn the content—using print to think and learn!
Teacher-centered factors influence reading comprehension more than text-centered features.
Guidance occurs before, during and after reading. Day 1: Improving Literacy Skills- Reading Allows students to connect difficult concepts, review, and collaboratively learn
The teacher's role becomes one of facilitator
Can be followed with a "Gallery Walk" to further enhance collaborative learning Concept Map Group Test Chart the Text 7 Step Vocabulary- Visual Literacy: Comparing Imagery Provides structure to student reading
Dual reading and writing promotes reading critically
Helps to promote critical thinking, linking scientific knowledge to society The goal is to expand understanding while nurturing intellectual and social skills.
Discussions work best with pre- and post activities.
They lend themselves well to writing/summarizing tasks.
The teacher's role is facilitator of discussion, prepare lots of guiding questions.
Text selection is key, choose text that encompasses big ideas.
For more information visit paideia.org Information Literacy: Evaluating Resources No paper is complete without citations
Here are some helpful websites to assist in creating work cited pages
-Many More are Available Just Google! Blackout Reading http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/cube_creator/ Study Cubes Discussion Preparation Logs Paidea Discussion followed by Frame Out Information Literacy: Citing Sources Day 2: Literacy in the Laboratory -Teaches students to say out loud what they are thinking while they are reading, must be modeled
-When modeled the teacher can exhibit the internal thinking of an adept reader
-Works well to teach making predictions, analyzing argument, linking to prior knowledge, and monitoring comprehension
-Allows the teacher to diagnose strengths and weaknesses through observation, one-on-one interviews, and reading journals Think Aloud Helps identify a students knowledge of the reading process
Access a students level of content vocabulary
Encourages monitoring for meaning Cloze Method Gives students the chance to reflect
Writing time is usually 2-10 minutes
Can be used for reflection, key concepts, or problems/questions encountered
Promotes reading-writing connections, facilitates critical thinking, and allows students to collect thoughts Timed Writing Writing Formal Research Reports LEPA Students work collaboratively to clarify and build understandings of content
Encourages communication and student coaching
Complete the round table online to incorporate technology and to monitor understanding as students write (wallwisher, corkboard.me) Round Table Writing Keeping Track of New Vocabulary Cooperative Reading Students learn by absorbing, doing, interacting, and reflecting on the learning experience
Reflecting allows students to link recent experiences to prior knowledge
Reflection involves analyzing commonalities, differences, and interrelations Student Reflection adapted from ExC-ELL by Margarita Calderón and Associates “Words must be explicitly taught and students need to practice using those words right away, and produce them at least 12 times before we can say they own them.”
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Words associated with concepts in core subjects, as well as all the words in the sentences that nest those concepts.
Formal syntax and grammar that nest those concepts and words.
Words and phrases used for understanding, explaining, discussing, reading, and writing concepts in contents areas and tests. Academic Language:
The language of School and Careers Choose the words that are the most useful in learning the content and concepts
1. Peruse the text
-Underline the words your students absolutely must
know to learn the content.
2.Address Standards
-What are the verbs in the standards?
-What is the language students need to process or
For example: describe, compare, evaluate, sequence 7-Step Vocabulary Strategy-
Selection of Words Seven Steps 1. Teacher says the word and asks the student to repeat the word 3 times.
2. Teacher reads the word and shows the word in Context from the text.
3. Teacher provides the dictionary definition
4. Teacher explains the meaning in student friendly terms
5. Teacher highlights an aspect of the word that might cause difficulty.
For example: grammar, spelling, polysemy
6. Engage student in activities to develop word
7. Teacher assigns reading Quick Tips for Selecting Words Work with grade level/ subject area colleagues
Select words that are most important for:
Formal discourse between teacher and student and student and student regarding standards
Comprehending the text
Use in students formal writing
Success on tests
Future academic and economic status Example 1: 1. Compose
2. An element is matter that is composed of one type of atom
3. To make or form by combining things, parts, or elements
4. Make up of
5. Composed is a polysemous word
Composed – tranquil, calm, serene Example 1: Continued 6. Engage - Have students practice using the vocabulary word
TTYN (Turn To Your Neighbor) -
__________ is composed of ________.
For example: A hamburger is composed of the patty,
buns, lettuce, and tomatoes.
7. Assign reading
Read page 507 in your physical science textbook Example 1: Engaged Look at the pictures and if it illustrates composed say "composed" if it does not illustrate composed say "not composed." H H O Water Analyze how texts are constructed
Moves students beyond surface comprehension and into deep understanding
Knowing how to analyze a writer's choices strengthens students' ability to read well
Can be completed in the margins of texts or notes, or in a table What is My Line? PMI or PNI Instructions
1. Create a non-fiction reading with select words "blacked out" and numbered.
2. Students fill in their best guesses for each word.
3. Have students reveal their guesses in a class discussion; require students to attribute rationale for their selections.
4. Students record updated guesses.
5. Hand out original text and have students record actual words. the ability to evaluate, apply, or create conceptual visual representations While reading the article, highlight words or phrases that require definitions or clarifications.

What are the Author's major ideas, concepts, or key points?
1. List these, point by point, and circle any you feel need discussion.
2. Summarize the Author's main point or idea in a few sentences.
3. Write a reaction paragraph to the article stating your own thoughts on the topic, using specific citations from the article to support your views.
4. Be ready to read and discuss your reaction paragraph in class on the due date. Discussion Preparation Log Discussion Preparation Log Not all information is good information
Students must be taught how to evaluate for credibility and validity
Have students work in small groups to evaluate and then come to a consensus as a class Colleges expect students to know how to develop and present scientific information
Review vs. Research Based
Create small goals to reach the final product
Utilize online tools- Writing Reviser and Science Writer 1. Have the class read the selected article- students should make special notes of what interest them, important facts, or short reflections.
2. Call five students to the front of the class, each student should draw a truth or a lie.
if a student draws a truth they make a statement regarding the content of the text
if a student draws a lie they make a false statement regarding the content of the text
3. Then members of the class discuss the type of statement made citing evidence from the article. Adapted for use as post-reading and pre-writing
Used for summarizing, organizing, or review
Easily modifiable to fit any discipline and nearly any purpose
-use Bio Cubes for important scientists and their
-use the mystery cube to have students evaluate
environmental case studies
-create your own cube or have students generate
them Use following a Paideia discussion or reading to assist students in summarizing
Step 1- Give each group a copy of/have each group draw the "Frame Out" template
Step 2- Have the group write the main topic in the center of the frame
Step 3- The first student should interview each group member about the selected topic
Step 4- The student interviewer then summarizes his groups response and fills in one side of the frame.
Step 5- Pass to the next group member and repeat steps 3 and 4 Frame Out Steps
1. Select and appropriate closed passage.
2. Leave first word, last word, and all punctuation in tact and provide word choices.
3. To assess content knowledge delete those words.
4. Avoid visual clues.
5. Have students read the entire passage.
6. Fill in all blanks.
7. Have students reread the entire passage Don't Just Cover! Help Discover! L- Link
Connect back to your report, specifically the hypothesis.
E- Evidence
State the evidence that supports or rejects your
P- Purpose
Describe the purpose of your findings. What did you learn?
A- Apply
Describe how your findings relate to a broader scientific
context. What does the future hold in this field? Begin by telling students the strategy you will be modeling; e.g., predicting, linking to prior knowledge, etc.
Pause and complete oral sentences:
This made me think of...
I reread this part because...
I think this is important because...
After students gain experience include them in the modeling.
Allow students to reciprocal teach through partner think alouds. Tips for Modeling Use as an activator of prior knowledge
Use throughout a lesson, discussion, or reading to help students monitor understanding
Use after a lesson to summarize, analyze, evaluate, or to explain a concept Tips for Timed Writing 1. Cooperative teams are given one piece of paper and one pen or
2. Teacher poses a problem or provides a task to which there are
multiple possible answers, steps, or procedures.
3. The teacher provides an example and checks for understanding. A
time limit is set.
4. The teacher selects a student to begin in each team.
5. Students quickly write their word or phrase and pass their paper to the
team member on the left.
6. The paper continues to go around and around the table as each
student adds to the team’s list.
7. The teacher calls time. All pencils/pens are placed on the team table.
8. The teams take turns sharing their responses with the rest of the class.
9. Students celebrate their success.

http://learningservicesnvsd44.edublogs.org/files/2011/11/kagan_strats-1-sp46vb.pdf Instructions for a Basic Roundtable -Promote student learning and academic achievement
-Enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience
-Help students develop skills in oral communication
-Develop students' social skills
-Promote student self-esteem Model- make sure students know what their role looks and sounds like and what product they should produce
Get student input on roles and responsibilities
Maintain small groups, 2-6
Groups should be heterogeneous and carefully structured
Use and adhere to time limits
Circulate and constantly monitor for understanding Tips for Cooperative Reading So What?
-Summarizes the content of the information presented.
Who Cares?
-Prompts students to analyze why the information is
significant. Who is the information is important to?
What Now?
-Students should build connections to past knowledge and
predict how this new knowledge affects them and how this
new information applies to a broader context. So What? Who Cares? What Now? -Helps to promote deep thinking skills
-Aims to avoid quick "agree/disagree" statements
-Promotes processing and reflection
-Allows students to evaluate for understanding and purpose
-Works well when analyzing issues, research, and perspectives Tip Allow students to work in pairs or small groups -Used to help students organize new vocabulary
-Easily modified
-Works well with students familiar with Cornell notes
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