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Wampanoag Culture

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by

Rebecca Patterson

on 8 September 2015

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Transcript of Wampanoag Culture

Wampanoag Culture
Region
Culture
History
Geography
Wampanoag's lived in Massachusetts including the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and in Rhode Island
Climate
They lived in the Temperate region and experienced all four changing seasons, including a harsh, cold winter.
Food and Homes
Government
Wampanoag was made up of over 60 tribes
Had a Great Sachem
Each tribe had lesser Sachem or Sagamores (Chief)
all chosen by the people from the leading families
They could only be the sachem as long as they had the people's support
Women could hold the position of Sachem if no suitable male was able
Religious Beliefs
Wampanoag religion is called Spiritualism.
Believe mother earth is their God
Would thank mother earth for all gifts given
Two major celebrations
Spring
Summer
Festivals held with singing, dancing and sporting games.
Language
Algonquian language which is Algic language family
Originally spoken as far as Merrimack Valley, coastal regions in NH and Rhode Island.
Was no longer spoken by modern day Wampanoag's
Is currently being revived thanks to items like this bible translated by John Elliot in the 1600's
Social Classes and Family Structure
Historical Events
Traders bring Yellow Fever 1616
Contact with Massachusetts Bay Colony 1620
Missionaries arrive 1632
Sold land to MBC to avoid conflict 1649
Massasoit dies 1661 leaving Metacomet as Sachmen
King Philips War 1675-1676
Forced to move to an area designated for them and other native tribes 1742
Important People
Squanto
Massasoit
Metacomet (King Philip)
European Contact
Peaceful contact with European Fisherman and Traders prior to colonization.
Helped the Massachusetts Bay Colony with food and knowledge
Contact with Europeans caused wide spread, devastating disease and death
Population in the early 1600's was estimates at 12,000. Only 400 survived past King Philips War only 75 years later.
Food
Homes
Horticultural
Corn
Beans
Squash
Watermelon
Sunflowers
Gathering
nuts
berries
greens
mushrooms
Fishing
Freshwater:
herring
trout
perch
catfish
eels
Hunting
deer
moose
beaver
rabbit
skunk
raccoon
Saltwater:
cod
tautog
pollock
bluefish
flatfish
bass
sea eels
mackerel
Dwellings were the hub of family life
providing protection from the elements
a space for work, recreation and storage.
offered shelter to guests or travelers
used for family prayer or spiritual gatherings
Function of the home
Families erected these dwellings at their coastal planting grounds and lived in them throughout the growing season.
With the coming of cold weather, people returned to the protection of inland villages.
Summer Homes
Winter Homes
Wide sheets of bark from large, older trees covered the frames
women also wove mats of bulrush, another kind of plant that came from the marshes and were hung inside the homes to keep them warm
Cattail mats covered the frame during the warmer months
The mats channeled away the rain and kept the inside comfortable and dry
Houses had a hole built into the very top of the house
This allowed smoke from the fire to escape
Houses were built in a round shape because that is best to heat or cool a house evenly
Once built, the houses belonged to the women
Families were the heart of Wampanoag society.
They all lived together, including extended family.
Work was divided by family member and gender
Men
Wampanoag men were hunters, fishers, and sometimes went to war to protect their families.
They also built circular homes
Participated in politics, traded, and hunted.
Carved the wooden bowls and soapstone pots.
Women
Wampanoag women were farmers
Did most of the childcare and cooking.
Cultivated the land, caught shellfish, and created mats, baskets, and clothing.
They collected wild fruits, nuts, berries, etc.
Women were responsible for 75% of the all food production.
Children
Children played
Went to school
Boys were taught the way of the woods
Girls were trained to work in the fields
Did chores and helped out around the house
Social Class
Privileged families determined by control/use of large and/or valued land
Land Use/Control
Land was assigned to families within a tribe for use
Did not believe that they could ever "own" the land
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