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02 Explorers Age
Transcript of 02 Explorers Age
Is the age of Exploration over?
Can we relate to the Early Explorers and their motivations? We are still explorers and we can still hold some of the motivations that drove the early explorers... but what were those motivations? Let us start with America's first European visitor... After the Vikings left North America
European do not return until 400+ years later.
In the meantime the small country of Portuagal
at the edge of Spain leads the way in European exploration. The new technology and knowledge generated at this time plays a major role in advancing exploration... Astolabe Caravels By the 1400s Portugal had several motives, financial support, and the technology necessary for exploration. Portuguese explorers set out to find new lands. Dias (Read his story on p40) Results of Portugal's Success Begins Atlantic Slave Trade Causes other Europen Nations
to launch exploration Even though Europe lost the Crusades, it opened up major trade between Asia and Europe, and Arabic traders there controlled that trade, and made it less profitable and very dangerous. Therefore Europe needed a way to trade with Asia directly. 1st idea, go by land north of the Middle East. But that was dangerous, it was cold, there were raiders, mountains, deserts, and odds are you'd die before you ever got to Asia, and by land it would take a very long time even if you did! 2nd idea, go around Africa by water.
This is a much better alternative to
the land route through Asia...but it is
still a long route to take. (remember the Vikings were here first) Italian sailor
Convinces Spanish monarchs to pay for trip
Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
First trip in 1492 (makes 3 more)
Lands in Caribbean names island "San Salvador", thinks he is in India.
1st European to tell West of New world Results:
Exchange between Europe & America begins
Conflict between countries over exploration rights
Desire to grow empires Results of Voyage Spain & Portugal both want these new lands to add to their growing empire.
Line of Demarcation - Pope declares a line in Atlantic and gives Spain right to claim all lands to West, Portugal the East (Spanish navy can back it up)
Treaty of Tordesillas - Portugal complains, to avoid war line moves 800 miles further west (basically gives what is now Brazil to Portugal... this is why Brazil speaks Portuguese today) Amerigo Vespucci In 1501 Amerigo Vespucci realized that Columbus had not found Asia but a new place altogether, and took four voyages mapping out the coastlines of North and South America. It was because of this that the Americas were named for him! First European to see the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean (in 1513), after crossing the Isthmus of Panama overland. First voyage to CIRCUMNAVIGATE the globe. The voyage began September 8, 1519, and lasted until September 6, 1522 (almost 3 years). Magellan sailed from Seville, Spain, with five ships, the Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Victoria, and Santiago. Three years later, only one ship (the Victoria) made it back to Seville, carrying only 18 of the original 270 crew members. Magellan was killed towards the end of the voyage, in the Philippines, during a battle with the natives. Columbian Exchange - more on that in a minute Cortes The Encomienda System The economienda system was a system that rewarded Spanish settlers who came to the New World.
The Spanish had the right to tax natives or force them to work. In exchange they were supposed to protect the natives.
They could also 'convert' (forcibly) them to Catholicism.
In reality, the natives were treated as slaves, forced to work in the plantations in horrible conditions, and were exposed to horrible treatment.
Over time, the Natives died off and their numbers were not high enough to provide enough labor. Also, some were arguing it was not right to treat them that way...this is when Spain becomes interested in African slavery...more to come on that! de Las Casa Bartolome de las Casas was the most famous opponent of the encomienda system. Watch the clip on him, and notice how he goes from not disagreeing with it to being a huge opponent of it over time! IN SUMMARY The journeys of the Spanish explorers allowed Spain to claim a huge empire in the Americas. Spain’s American colonies helped make the country very wealthy. From 1503 to 1660, Spanish fleets loaded with treasure carried 200 tons of gold and 18,600 tons of silver from the former Aztec and Inca empires to Spain. Mexico and Peru also grew food to help support Spain’s growing empire. However, these gains came with a price for Native Americans. Native peoples suffered greatly at the hands of the Spanish.