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Introduction to Surdéclinaison

My presentation for the 4th Language Creation Conference

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Transcript of Introduction to Surdéclinaison

Welcome! When Morphology Kicks Syntax Out of the Way When English Just Seems to Lack the Words When a Boy Plays with the One That Is Wearing the Beret When Over-Long and Obscure Titles Seem Like the Way to Go an Introduction to Surdéclinaison Language Not Language ? Engelangers Engelangers Engelangers Engelangers Naturalistic Artlangers Naturalistic Artlangers Naturalistic Artlangers Naturalistic Artlangers Universals But are they? Morphology Syntax Stringing Words
Together Phrase-Structure Rules Recursive Infinite Finite Paradigm Tables Affixes and/or
Stem Changes Not Recursive Oh really!? perx-ni k'ac-isa-ni The man's feet foot-NOM.PL man-GEN-NOM.Pl Old Georgian: As if you didn't expect it... Kayardild: Maku-ntha yulawu-jarra-ntha yakuri-naa-ntha
dangka-karra-nguni-naa-ntha mijil-nguni-naa-ntha The woman must have caught fish
with the man's net. woman-OBL catch-PAST-OBL fish-MABL-OBL
man-GEN-INST-MABL-OBL net-INST-MABL-OBL Suffixaufnahme Agreement Well, you should. Group Marking: The case marker (and other markers like gender and class) is found only once in the noun phrase.
Adjectives are invariable when used attributively.
Only one noun phrase in a series of apposed (and sometimes coordinated) noun phrases gets a case marker.
Case is a phrasal affix. Hungarian: a fehér vadállatnak a hasában
[[ART white beast]-DAT ART belly-3RD.SG.POSS]-INE English: in the belly of the white beast
X Y Z Sumerian: šag ur babbar.ak.a
[heart [beast white]-GEN]-LOC [[Y Z]-GEN X]-INE [X [Z Y]-GEN]-INE in the belly of the white beast
X Y Z English: valkean pedon vatsassa
[white-GEN beast-GEN belly-INE] X-INE Z-GEN-INE Y-GEN-INE Word Marking: [Y-GEN Z-GEN X-INE] The case marker (and other markers like gender and class) is iterated at every word of the noun phrase.
Adjectives show agreement when used attributively.
Every noun phrase in a series of apposed (and sometimes coordinated) noun phrases gets a case marker.
Case is a word affix. Finnish: Suffixaufnahme! Old Albic: rambal gwaralal langalal
belly-LOC beast-PRT-LOC white-PRT-LOC Morphology cannot
be infinite BUSTED dimac'-i-n-ner-ë
opposite-GEN-ART-PL-ART Western Armenian: those on the other side Surdéclinaison Yes, I do pronounce <é> and <ai> differently! The ability some languages have to take an already inflected word, and inflect it again, giving it a different function in the phrase and/or sentence. Basque 650,000 Language Isolate
Possibly Pre-Indo-European Phonology: 5 cardinal vowels (+ <ü> in Souletin) Originally no labiodentals Laminal <s> vs. apical <z> vs. postalveolar <x> Palatal series (in some dialects) <h> nowadays mostly silent <r> cannot start a word No phonemic stress or tone (except in Souletin) Surdéclinaison! Morphology: Synthetic verbs marked for ergative, absolutive and dative arguments No genders Agglutinative (mostly suffixing) 3-way number/definition distinction Ergative-absolutive Periphrastic conjugations Strongly group marking Galdegaia Strongly SOV in subclauses Head-final (but adjectives follow nouns) Weakly SOV in independent clauses (only verb-initial sentences are disallowed) Syntax: Surdéclinaison: Euskara
Euskera
Eskuara + 9 to 15 other cases (depending on who is counting) txori: bird(s)
txoria: the bird
txoriak: the birds nire txakurra: my dog
txakur zuria: the white dog aita altu eta haur txikiarekin:
with the tall father and the small child

aita altu eta haur txiki-a-(r)ekin
father tall and child small-ART-COM Vigesimal counting system With the article: emakumearen txakurra
emakume-a-(r)en txakur-a
woman-ART-GEN.POS dog-ART
the woman's dog emakumearena
emakume-a-(r)en-a
woman-ART-GEN.POS-ART
the woman's (one) ni: I nire: my
I-GEN.POS nirea: mine
I-GEN.POS-ART gizonaren etxea:
the house of the man gizonarena:
the one of the man gizonarenaren:
of the one of the man gizonarenarena:
the one of the one of the man ... etxeko atea: the door of (in/at) the house
house-GEN.LOC door-ART etxekoa: the one of the house
house-GEN.LOC-ART emakumearenan
emakume-a-(r)en-a-n
woman-ART-GEN.POS-ART-INE
at the woman's Ponetarekilakoarekin! Bilbora: to Bilbao
Bilbo-ra
Bilbao-ALL urrezko: golden
urre-z-ko
gold-INS-GEN.LOC urrez: (made) with/in/of gold
urre-z
gold-INS arotzarekilako gizona:
the man who is with the blacksmith urrezko eraztuna: the golden ring With the suffix -ko: arotzarekila: with the blacksmith
arotz-a-(r)ekila
blacksmith-ART-COM Bilborako bidea: the road to Bilbao poneta-a-(r)ekila-ko-a-(r)ekin
beret-ART-COM-GEN.LOC-ART-COM
With the one who is wearing the beret! To make subclauses: Piarresek atzo leihotik lorontzia aurdiki du:
Peter has thrown the vase yesterday through the window Relative: Piarresek atzo leihotik aurdiki duen lorontzia:
The vase that Peter has thrown yesterday through the window +GEN.POS +ART Piarresek atzo leihotik aurdiki duena:
The one that Peter has thrown yesterday through the window Completive: Hemen da:
He is here +ALL Erran daut hemen dela:
He's told me that he's here +GEN.POS Nahiago dut hemen den:
I prefer him to be here Hemen delarik:
When he is here
Hemen denean: +PART +ART-INE Hemen delako gizona:
The man who is supposed to be here +GEN.LOC And plenty of other things! on: good -ki: ongi: well asto: donkey astoki: stupidly ohore: honour ohorez: with honour ohorezki: honourably -entzat Benefactive -en-tzat Prolative of the Possessive Genitive -ekin Comitative -e-ki-n (Archaic) Inessive of the Instrumental of the Possessive Genitive -ekilan -e-ki-la-n Comitative (Archaic) Inessive of the Allative of the Instrumental of the Possessive Genitive ontsalarik: to do well
ontsa-la-(r)ik
well-ALL-PART geroztik: later on
gero-z-tik
future-INS-ABL ABS
ERG
DAT
GEN.POS
COM
BEN
CAUS
INS
GEN.LOC
INE
ALL
TERM
DIR
DEST
ABL
PART
PROL Indefinite Singular Plural etxe etxek etxeri etxeren etxerekin etxerentzat etxerengatik etxez etxetako etxetan etxetara etxetaraino etxetarantz etxetarako etxetatik etxerik etxetzat etxea etxeak etxeari etxearen etxearekin etxearentzat etxearengatik etxeaz etxeko etxean etxera etxeraino etxerantz etxerako etxetik etxeak etxeek etxeei etxeen etxeekin etxeentzat etxeengatik etxeez etxeetako etxeetan etxeetara etxeetaraino etxeetarantz etxeetarako etxeetatik Moten Motenku|lu Syntax: Head-final (but adjectives follow nouns) Agglutinative~fusional 5 cardinal vowels Complex phonotactics Finite verbs unmarked for person subject of an intransitive verb: nominative
volitional subject of a transitive verb: nominative
non-volitional subject of a transitive verb: instrumental Features Periphrastic conjugations Surdéclinaison! Two affricates, written |s and |z (C)(C)V(C) syllable ge|sem ukol opa ka|se kodejun:
with the old father and the young man

ge|sem ukol opa ka|se ko-odun-e
father old.age and man INS-youth-ART gvaj badej: my dog
badi bonteju: the slow dog Strongly SOV No phonemic stress Split-nominative Phonology: 3 core cases marked by an infix and a suffix
definition marked by an infix
+ 7 functional prefixes Topic/focus Strongly group marking Counters/optional classifiers No rhotic Two palatals, written |l and |n Infixing Morphology: badi japusu: 101 dogs
japususponda: 101 small animals
badi japususponda: 101 dogs

eg ka|se: two men
egvokez: two people (fokez: person)
ka|se egvokez: two men With the genitive: +ART With the article: gvaj: my
I-GEN Koga ipe|laj iteos:
The one that I see bvaj |ladi|lea: for your mother
ba-v-i |la-di|la-e
you-GEN BEN-mother-ART (m)umpedvi|n poltejuz: the door to the house Adverbial: ga: I ... (mo)e|leveo|n
(mo)-e|lon-e-v-i-e
(SPAT)-woman-ART-GEN-ART
at the woman's E izunlaj ito:
He is here +TEMP-ACC And plenty of other things! (m)umpedin: to the house
(m0)-umpi-e-d-n
(SPAT)-house-ART-ACC kofulvi: golden
ko-fuli-v-i
INS-gold-GEN ka|sevevevej:
of the one of the one of the man Koga linedan ipe|laj ito:
I see the bird ka|sevej umpej:
the house of the man To make subclauses: Relative: kofuli: (made) with/in/of gold
ko-fuli
INS-gold gveaj: mine
I-GEN-ART +CAUS E izunlaj didon:
As long as he's here Koga ipe|laj itos linean:
The bird that I see e|leveo|n
e|lon-e-v-i-e
woman-ART-GEN-ART
the woman's (one) E izunlaj |zujto:
Because he's here bvaj |ladi|levaj zanej:
the ring for your mother Surdéclinaison: ka|sevevej:
of the one of the man kofulvi zanej: the golden ring e|levo|n badej
e|lon-e-v-i badi-e
woman-ART-GEN dog-ART
the woman's dog ka|sevej:
the one of the man E izunlaj dito:
When he's here +TEMP-NOM But I still have to discover them! Indefinite Singular Definite Singular Definite Plural Indefinite Plural NOM
ACC
GEN
SPAT.NOM
SPAT.ACC
SPAT.GEN
TEMP.NOM
TEMP.ACC
TEMP.GEN
BEN
ORIG
INS
FIN
CAUS umpi umptin umbvi mumpi mumptin mumbvi djumpi djumptin djumbvi |lajumpi gumpi kumpi tejumpi |zumpi umpej umpedin umpevi mumpej mumpedin mumpevi djumpej djumpedin djumpevi |lajumpej gumpej kumpej tejumpej |zumpej umpsi umpsin umpfi mumpsi mumpsin mumpfi djumpsi djumpsin djumpfi |lajumpsi gumpsi kumpsi tejumpsi |zumpsi umpesi umpe|zin umpefi mumpesi mumpe|zin mumpefi djumpesi djumpe|zin djumpefi |lajumpesi gumpesi kumpesi tejumpesi |zumpesi S NP VP (AP) N1 (PP) N1 rosa
rosa
rosam
rosae
rosae
rosā rosae
rosae
rosās
rosārum
rosīs
rosīs grandegulinaretestreco(n, j, jn) Thank you! This presentation was made using: The Prezi online editor (http://prezi.com)
Inkscape
Ubuntu GNU/Linux The Basque flag is ©Daniele Schirmo, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic licence.
The map is a derivative work based on the Basque flag and a map ©Eddo, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported licence. A special thanks for David Peterson and the LCS for giving me this wonderful opportunity!
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