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Kyle Collins

on 16 May 2013

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Cave and Crystal Formation This is a
bismuth crystal What is a cave? A cave is a natural landform. It is a bsdj fnasjasjk hasjk sjlfhas njlascnajkc cn jklfjkas jsk jkfh jkfha kfhajkfha kfhj a hajk h jk ajk hasjkfh s k hasj dh sjkfhasjkd asjk hq jkdhasj f crfeer fnd jfhad kf sjkfhas fh faj shf sjkdbh jk -CO2 dissolves in rainwater/run-off, forms carbonic acid (H2CO3)

-When it becomes groundwater, it dissolves soluble bedrock like limestone (CaCO3), dolomite(Ca(CO3)2 or Mg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O)

-Eventually, the groundwater carves tunnels and caverns in the ground

-These kinds of caves form in “karst” topography, which is ground that is made of rocks that are soluble in rainwater

-Springs, resurgences, and underground rivers are common to solutional caves

-Solutional caves are very dynamic, groundwater keeps reshaping them adding, subtracting features Solutional Caves -A cave in the side of a cliff face

- formed from a body of water and wind eroding the weak zone of a cliff

-The weak zone is usually a fault(split) or a dike(depression)

-Sea caves can be quite long, some reach hundreds of meters into the cliff face

-Larger sea caves form in more solid rock

-Sea caves formed in karst topography can exhibit the features commonly found in solutional caves Sea/Littoral Caves Good question! Here are a few main points about caves: Caves are natural openings that lead underground which are big enough for a person to fit in Lava Caves -Normally are made of igneous rocks (solidified lava) and have smooth walls if the cave is young
-when the surface of a lava flow cools, the layer underneath is still fluid so it keeps flowing and forms a lava tube
-when the volcano erupts again, the lava tube is coated with more lava, adding new features
-When a volcano becomes dormant, the primary cave may not change a lot over the years (or as least not as much as a solutional cave)
-some crystals form in primary caves, both precipitated deposits, and very rarely, gemstones. Features of Caves Cave formations (or decorations), the various shapes minerals can take in caves. Also called speleothems. - Types of speleothems Crystal Formation There are 2 main ways that crystals are formed: Magma is basically a mixture of a lot of different kinds of minerals that are all melted.

-When magma solidifies, denser minerals sink to the bottom

-The heat and pressure from above form them into really tough crystals like emerald, ruby, diamonds, other gemstones

-The slower it solidifies, the larger the crystals are Cave Pool 1. -The dissolved minerals, through the process of nucleation, which is the dissolved particles bonding to something solid in the solution, grow on top of them and become crystals

-This is how the stalactites and stalagmites (and similar formations) form in caves

-These crystals are more fragile than crystals formed from pressure inside the earth (duh!)

-This method is much more common than the first method 2. Stalactites Crystallization -Many different substances crystallize
-Most, if not all solutions will crystallize
-Some of the more common-place crystallizations that people would see include:
-Snowflakes Caves can form from corrosional, erosional, volcanic, and tectonic forces. - Secondary Caves - lava caves/tubes, tufa caves, blister caves, reef caves - solution caves, sea caves, erosion caves, tectonic caves -Primary caves Types of Caves Other types Blister, Tufa, Tectonic
A type of limestone cave that formed at the same time or shortly after the limestone bedrock was deposited at its current location. Has similar features to solutional limestone caves if it is an old tufa cave. Tufa cave When caves form due to tectonic activity, which causes bedrock to split apart from one another slowly. These grow wider and wider to become a cave. Eventually, it will widen so much it isn’t a cave anymore, but a fault or canyon. Can form in any type of terrain. Also known as boulder and rift caves. Tectonic cave Blister cave A rare type of cave that forms from how gases rising out of molten rock. Usually found near lava caves. Erosional Cave -mostly found in deserts or areas with old mountains
-a crack in rock of some kind, gets widened by wind or water, eventually becoming a cave
-these caves have smooth walls, little to no formations at all
-can form in hard or soft bedrock Nucleation Pressure and heat Drapes Stalagmites Columns Flowstone The study of caves is called "Speleology" (from the Greek word "Spelaion" which means cave. - solutional cave speleothems, lava cave speleothems - How they form - Methods of crystallization SOLUTIONAL CAVE FORMATIONS - Minerals that make up caves Minerals That Make Up Caves 1 -Usually comes in either a flakey powder(calcite) or as a spiky branch(aragonite) or a mixture of the two
- limestone is commonly used as a building material
-Fragile sedimantary rock formed from the shells of ancient sea invertebrates -A very soft, white or pink mineral that can be opaque or transparent
-Precipitates out of seawater or the calcium sulfate in rocks
-can be found in nature along with limestone or on its own
- has a variety of uses such as plaster, fertilizer, sculpture material, and building material Minerals That Make Up Caves 2 -Quite varied color-wise, although pure dolomite is usually white, grey or pink with a pearly sheen
- large blocks of dolomite are called dolostone
-Commonly formed from limestone that was immersed in magnesium rich water -Say hello to table salt, except crystallized in caves
- If it has impurities, will be a different colour
-Tasty (note: don't go around tasting cave walls) Minerals That Make Up Caves 3 Last, but certainly not least, is basalt (amphibole, pyroxene, olivine and other minerals). It is the most common type of igneous rock.Many lava caves are made of basalt. Other solution cave formations Helictites Moonmilk Lava Cave Formations Pahoehoe Lava Lava Flow Backflow Lava Lake Splash Stalactites Welded Breakdown Tubular Lava Stalactites Drip Stalagmites Mineral Deposits Crystallization 2 Another common crystal that people see is rock candy, similar to the stuff that was handed out earlier. Bibliography of Resources Bunnell, D. (1995, June 19). Virtual cave. Virtual Cave. Retrieved April 25, 2013, from http://www.goodearthgraphics.com/virtcave/index.html

Bunnell, D. (2013, January 16). Karst. The Virtual Cave. Retrieved April 25, 2013, from http://www.goodearthgraphics.com/virtcave/karst/karst.html

Clark, D. (n.d.). Gem formation. International Gem Society. Retrieved May 04, 2013, from http://www.gemsociety.org/info/igem17.htm

Davies, W. E., & Morgan, I. M. (2013, January 15). Geology of caves. US Geological Survey. Retrieved May 01, 2013, from http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/cave/

Duckeck, J. (1993). Speleology. Show Caves. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.showcaves.com/english/explain/Speleology/index.html

Farrant, A. (n.d.). How caves form. British Geological Survey. Retrieved April 27, 2013, from http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mendips/caveskarst/caveform.htm

Galloway, J. P., & Tinsley, J. C., III. (2013, January 15). Karst topography. US Geological Survey. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/cave/karst.html

Smigel, B. S. (2012). Gem formation. Geology 115. Retrieved May 04, 2013, from http://www.bwsmigel.info/lesson10/de.gem.formation.html

Stewart, M. (1999). Life without light: A journey to Earth's dark ecosystems (pp. 71-75). New York: Grolier.

US Geological Survey, & National Park Service. (2000, September 5). Geology of caves. National Park Service. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/cave/cave.html

Calcite. (n.d.). University of Minnesota's Mineral Pages. Retrieved May 01, 2013, from

Gypsum. (n.d.). University of Minnesota's Mineral Pages. Retrieved May 01, 2013, from http://www.geo.umn.edu/courses/1001/minerals/gypsum.shtml Limestone (CaCO3): Gysum (CaSO4•2H2O): Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2): Halite (NaCl): - Crystals in everyday objects! by: Kyle and Vivian
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