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Chapter 26: An Age of Democracy & Progress
Transcript of Chapter 26: An Age of Democracy & Progress
Civil War Tests Democracy
Texas Joins the United States
War With Mexico
North and South
Civil War Beaks Out
Abolition of Slavery
-U.S. had the right and duty to rule all of North America
-Indian Removal Act- forced Natives to leave their home
-Led to Trail of Tears
-Mexico owned terrtiory west of Lousiana Purchase and allowed Americans to move in
-Texans revolted against Mexican rule and won independance
-U.S. annexed Texas- Mexico viewd this as an act of war
-War lasted from 1846 to 1848
- Mexico finally surrendered
-Ceded territory including California and South West
-The north had a diverse economy, while the south relied on a few cash crops through slave labor
-The different economical ideas led to controversy over slavery
-The slave debate led to the debate over state rights
-In 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected president
-The southern states began to secede because Lincoln promised to abolish slavery
-April 12, 1861, confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter
-Lincoln then ordered the army to bring the rebel states back into the union
-Because the north had better transportation, a larger population, and more factories they beat the south, which had superior leadership.
-1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclomation, which freed all the slaves in the southern states
- Because this showed that the war was about slavery, European countries did not send money and supplies to the south
- After the war the U.S passed the Thirteenth Amendment which abolished slavery
- The 14th and 15th amendment extended the rights of citizenship and allowed former slaves to vote
- From 1865 to 1877, Union troops occupied the south.
- After the troops left southerners limited the rights of African Americans
- This encouraged segregation in the south
-African Americans also faced trouble in the North
-South was destroyed
- In the 1870s, immigrants came at a rate of nearly 2,000 a day
- By 1914 over 20 million people had moved to the U.S
- In 1862 the U.S authorized money to build a transcontinental railroad
-The railroad was built mostely by immigrants and was finished in 1869
- By 1900 nearly 200,000 miles of track crossed the nation which helped the economy
Canada Struggles for Self-Rule
•Canada was originally home to Native Americans.
•France was the first European country to colonize in the 1600 and 1700s. These colonists included fur-trappers and missionaries that tended to live with Native Americans.
•Great Britain took possession in 1763 after it defeated France in the French and Indian War.
•The remaining French lived in St. Lawrence Valley.
•English-speaking colonists arrived in Canada after it came under the rule of Great Britain.
French and English Canada
•Conflict is mainly caused by the religious differences of the Catholic French and the Protestant British.
•In 1791, British Parliament created two new Canadian Provinces to help solve conflicts.
•Upper Canada (now Ontario) had an English-speaking majority and Lower Canada (Quebec) had a French-speaking majority. Each had its own elected assembly.
•The new division temporarily eased tension but in the early 1800s, Middle-class professionals in both colonies demanded political and economic reforms.
•In 1830, rebellions broke out in Upper and Lower provinces. Parliament sent Lord Durham, a reform-minded statesman to investigate.
•In 1039, Durham sent a report to Parliament proposing two reforms: 1. Upper and Lower need to be united and British immigration should be encouraged. 2. Colonists should be allowed to govern themselves in domestic matters.
Dominion of Canada
•By mid-1800s, Canadians believed they needed a central government to protect their interests.
•By 1867, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick joined the Province of Canada to form the Dominion of Canada. This made them self-governing with domestic affairs, but still part of the British Empire.
Canada’s Westward Expansion
•First prime minister, John Macdonald, expanded westward by purchasing land and persuading frontier territories to join the union.
•By 1871, Canada stretched to the Pacific Ocean and in 1885 MacDonald completed construction of a transcontinental railroad.
Australia and New Zealand
•In 1769, James Cook, a British sea captain claimed New Zealand and in 1770 claimmed part of Australia for Great Britain. Along the way, he met the Maori, a Polynesian People who had settled in New Zealand in AD 800, and he met the Aborigines, the native Australians and the longest ongoing culture in the world. Both peoples have a culture based on farming, hunting, and fishing.
Free Settlers Arrive
•Free British settlers eventually joined the former convicts in Australia and New Zealand.
•Wool became an important trade item although sheep are not native to Australia.
•To encourage immigration, the government offered cheap land.
•Population rose in the early 1800s and skyrocketed after a gold-rush in 1851 and pioneers pushed westward across the interior and established outposts in western Australia.
Settling New Zealand:
Grew slower than Australia because Great Britain did not claim ownership
British recognized land rights of Maori
1814, Missionaries come to convert Maori to Catholicism
In 1839, due to land conflicts, Britain annexed New Zealand & appoint governor
1840-Maori agree to a treaty that they will be under British law if their land rights are respected
Colonists want to rule themselves and still be a British colony
1850s- Australia & New Zealand become self-governing with parliamentary government
1901- All Australian colonies = the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia & New Zealand became dominions
Australia were first used secret ballot or the Australian ballot
New Zealand extended suffrage to white women in 1893 (1st country to do so)
Status of Native Peoples
Non-Europeans excluded from democracy and prosperity
Many natives killed by disease; or killed or driven away by colonists
From 1845-1872 colonist fight Maori in a series of wars
Colonial government outgunned the disease stricken Maori and drove them away
Irish Win Home Rule
In 1100s, pope grants control of Ireland to English king
English knights, who invaded Ireland, become aristocracy
The predominately Catholic Irish resent the mainly Protestant English
English laws limit Catholic rights and favor English and Protestantism
1801-Ireland is formally joined to Britain, which gave Irish a seat in Parliament
1829-Daniel O’Conner persuades Parliament to pass Catholic Emancipation Act
Allows Catholics more rights
Irish peasants depend on potatoes as their only source of food
1845-1848 a deadly fungus destroys most of potato crop
1million people die (Ireland’s population 8 million)
Many Irish flee to Britain, the US, Canada, & Australia
English land owners more demanded rents from peasants who found it harder and harder to pay
Many Irish lost their land and fell into debt
Demands for Home Rule:
Some Irish want complete independence, while others want home rule; British refuse
Irish Protestants feared being a minority in Ireland gained independence
Ulster- home to most Protestants; northern Ireland
1914- Britain creates a home bill rule for southern Ireland, but was put on hold due to WWI
Rebellion and Division:
1916, Easter Week, Irish nationalist rebel in Dublin; Britain puts down protest
Nationalists won elections for Parliament after WWI
They do not attend Parliament, protesting delay in home rule
Form underground Irish government
Irish Republican Army (IRA) attack British officials in Ireland, sparking war
1921- Ireland is divide by Britain
South Ireland= dominion called the Irish Free State; home rule
North Ireland=Ulster, part of Great Britain
Eamon De Valera leads nationalists to seek total independence
1949-Declare themselves the independent Republic of Ireland
Nineteenth Century Progress
Democratic Reform and Activism
Self-rule for British Colonies
War and Expansion in the United States
Social Sciences Explore Behavior
An Age of Democracy and Progress
Scientific theories in the 1800s prompted new studies in modern social science
Psychology, the study of the human mind and behavior, challenges the ideas of the Enlightenment
Physiologists Ivan Pavlov develops idea of an unconscious acts
Sigmund Frued creates therapy called psychoanalysis
Rise of Mass Culture
In 1900, different forms of entertainment begin to appeal to all masses
Popularity of trips to local music halls increases
Demands of growing industries lead to greater advances in technology
Economic growth produced many social changes
Coal and steam drove machines of industry
Gasoline (made from oil) started being used to power the internal combustion engine, which makes the automobile possible
Another new energy was electricity, the electric generator was developed, which could produce a current that could power machines
Patented more than 1000 inventions including the light bulb and the phonograph
Most important “invention” was the idea of a research laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ
Lewis H. Latimer- an African American employed by Edison
Alexander Graham Bell- a teacher of deaf students who invented the telephone in his free time
Guglielmo Marconi- used theoretical discoveries about electromagnetic waves to create the first radio
It sent messages (using Morse Code) through the air without the use of wires
Henry Ford- decided to make cars that were affordable for most people.
He used standardized interchangeable parts and the assembly line-(a line of workers who each put a single piece on unfinished cars as they passed on a moving belt) to make car manufacturing cheaper and more efficient.
A Model T Ford could be assembled in less than two hours and it originally sold for $850 but it eventually dropped to $300
Wilbur and Orville Wright- two bicycle mechanics from Daytona, Ohio
On December 17, 1903 they flew a gasoline powered flying machine at Kitty Hawk, NC
The longest flight only lasted 59 seconds, but it began the aircraft industry
Inventions: Making Life Easier
New Ideas in Medicine
The germ theory of disease was developed by a French chemist Louis Pasteur
While examining the fermentation process of alcohol he observed bacteria
He learned that heat killed bacteria
This leads to the process of pasteurization to kill germs in liquids such as milk
Joseph Lister-British surgeon that thought the germ theory of disease might explain why half of surgical patients die of infections
He ordered his surgical wards to be kept spotlessly clean, and as a result 85% of his patients survived
Cities began building plumbing and sewer systems to improve public health
Vaccines were found for diseases such as typhus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, and yellow fever
New Ideas in Science
Charles Darwin-English naturalist who challenged the idea of special creation
He developed a theory that all forms of life evolved from earlier living forms that had existed millions of years ago
Wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Natural Selection- populations tend to grow faster than the food supply and so they must compete for food. The members of a species that survive are best adapted to their environment. The surviving members produce offspring that share their advantages, and species may change as a result and new species may evolve.
This theory through natural selection came to be called the theory of evolution
Gregor Mendel- Austrian monk who discovered the pattern to the way that certain traits are inherited
John Dalton- British Chemist who theorized that all matter is made of atoms and showed that elements contain only one kind of atom which has a specific weight and that compounds contain more than one kind of atom
Dmitri Mendeleev- Russian chemist who invented the periodic table, for he also left gaps where he predicted new elements would be discovered. Later on it was discovered he was right.
Marie Curie- discovered two of the missing elements radium and polonium
She gave this energy the name radioactivity
She shared the Nobel Prize with her husband for physics for their work on radioactivity
In 1911 Marie won it again for chemistry for discovering radium and polonium
Ernest Rutherford- British physicist who discovered atoms were made up of smaller particles.
He discovered the nucleus and electrons within an atom
Herbert Spencer- English philosopher who argued that free economic competition was natural selection in action
Social Darwinism provided rationalization for imperialism and colonialism
By early 1900s, filmmarkers begin producing the first feature films
Spectator sports such as football and baseball in the United States and soccer in Europe gain popularity
Reform in Great Britain
Prior to the 1600s, Britain was ruled by an absolute monarch
1688: Britain becomes a constitutional monarchy, with a king/queen as the head of state but Parliament holding the power.
House of Lords: positions inherited or appointed
House of Commons: seats elected through voting
Reform Bill of 1832
Wealthy middle class (i.e. factory owners, bankers, merchants) leads protests to extend
The 1830 nationalist revolt in France frightens parliament into passing the Reform Bill of 1832
Law eased property requirements and modernized districts for voting
"well-to-do" & upper middle class men could vote*
Gave new industrial cities more representation
*only 1 in 5 men were now eligible to vote
Non-represented groups began to press parliament for more rights =
Demand Parliament sign The People's Charter of 1838
suffrage for all men
annual Parliamentary elections
vote by secret ballot (to make Parliament more responsive to the lower classes)
Parliament rejects the demands, though responded years later
By 1884 most men in Britain had gained suffrage
Queen of British Empire from 1837-1901
Brought Britain to the height of its wealth and power
During her reign, the power of the monarchy is transferred to the Parliament
Political power shifts almost completely to the prime minister and his cabinet, leaving the queen with no political power
Women Gain the Right to Vote
Organization and Resistance
Women in Britain and the U.S. begin to organize reform societies and protest unfair laws and customs
In 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded Women's Social and Political Union: a militant organization for women's rights
Suffragette: a women seeking the right to vote through organized protest
The Third Republic
March 1871: radical group -- Paris Commune -- takes control of the city
May 1871: troops loyal to National Assembly march into the city
Fighting lasts over a week
Communard troops & workers battle -- 20,000 die & city burns
1875: new government agreed upon (Third Republic, lasts 60 yrs.)
"the system of government that divides us least"
First Republic = French Revolution (ousted Louis XVI)
Second Republic = 1848 Revolution (ousted Louis-Phillipe)
Political parties continue to battle for power 1871-1914 (France averages a change of government every 10 months)
The Dreyfus Affair
The Third Republic is threatened by groups who wanted to return to a monarchy and/or establish military rule
These conflicts -- along with
-- lead to the
Capt. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French Army, is falsely accused of selling military secrets to Germany and is given life in prison
public opinion divided
Emile Zola publishes
, denouncing the army for covering up the scandal
eventually Dreyfus is declared innocent
The Rise in Zionism
Dreyfus case highlights anti-Semitic sentiment in Western Europe
Jews were being persecuted in Eastern Europe, thousands flee
They begin to work for a homeland in Palestine, effort known as
The Victorian Age
Democracy in France
Not a true democracy
Only 6% (land-owning men) could vote
= upper class ran government