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Transcript of VITALIS
Tolulope (Tolu) Adewole: literature review, Sanergy details slide, challenges/limitations
Erica Figueroa: literature review, research, references
Samuel (Sammy) Gershon: literature review, presenter
Kara Leverette: literature review, general organizing/planning tasks, narrowing down group focus for interventions, plan of implementation, budget, additional (hidden) slides
Hongying (Christina) Li: literature review, project planning (Doodle, finalizing meeting times), references, research
Uchenna Osuji: general research and literature review, need and location profiling, additional (hidden) slide
Lauren Shanker: literature review, Prezi master, presenter
Goal: improve community members’ capacity to promote hygienic practices
Curriculum: adapted from USAID Hygiene Improvement Project (HIP) WASH Training Package for the Prevention of Diarrheal Disease
HIP: USAID program funded from 2004-2010 developed specifically to promote “handwashing with soap, safe feces disposal, and safe storage and treatment of household drinking water” in a wide range of settings
Learning by Doing Initiative in Ethiopia incorporated this curriculum and was successful in reducing open defecation
Modules include “handwashing,” “handling feces,” and “interpersonal communication” and would thus equip staff to educate the Fresh Life customers about proper hygiene practices
Poor sanitation costs Kenya $324 million (USD) a year
Wednesday, December 3rd, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
VITALIS TO IMPROVE SANITATION IN SLUMS OF NAIROBI
VITALIS PRESENTS TO INVESTORS
"Improved sanitation in developing countries typically yields about US$9 worth for every US$1 spent. Hand-washing and hygienic private toilets in homes and schools bring economic benefits for households, communities, and nation..." UN Water
Current global economic return on sanitation spending is $5.5 for every $1 invested, more than double the economic return on water spending ($2) -WHO 2012
SANITATION & DIARRHEAL ILLNESS
CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS
5.6 million people have no latrine and defecate in the open
30% of the population has access to "improved sanitation"
5% of the population washes their hands regularly with soap
Kenyan government leaders
Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation
Specific Investor- Oprah
Our stakeholders comprise community members, local government and NGOs, the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, and Sanergy. Though Sanergy will be supplying important materials for our intervention, we will be working more closely with our other stakeholders throughout our time in Nairobi.
MONITORING AND EVALUATION
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Data will be recorded and collected by local staff, in collaboration with local NGOs, for the Interim Evaluation and final Evaluation.
WASH POST- 2015: proposed targets and indicators for drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene (JMP)
WASH Monitoring and Evaluation Tools (CARE International)
Kenya is not on track to meet MDGs
The 7th MDG is to “ensure environmental sustainability” and addressing sanitation is a key component of this effort
Addressing sanitation issues also captures and has a positive impact on the rest of the MDGs
17,100 children under 5 die each year from diarrhea, 90% directly related to poor WASH
Fecal contamination of the environment is the root cause of ~3,500 cases of cholera per year
Early childhood diarrhea contributes to undernutrition, stunting and wasting which are associated with malnutrition and in turn with reduced long-term cognitive development.
A PROFILE OF KIBERA
DISPARITIES IN SANITATION
THE IMPACT ON HEALTH
1. Nairobi Slums Area. Retrieved from http://mapsof.net/map/nairobi-slums-area
2. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation 2011 Report.
3. World Bank/UNICEF survey on hygiene behavior. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.usaid.gov/kenya/fact-sheets/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash-program
4. Water and Sanitation Program (2012). Economic impacts of poor sanitation in Africa. Retrieved from http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/WSP-ESI-Kenya-brochure.pdf
5. Fact and information about Kibera. Retrieved from http://www.kibera.org.uk/Facts.html
6. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). (2014). Progress on Drinking-Water and Sanitation. Retrieved from http://www.unwater.org/fileadmin/user_upload/unwater_new/docs/jmp.2014_eng.pdf
7. United Nations. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Retrieved from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/environ.shtml
8. Water and Sanitation Program. Retrieved from http://www.wsp.org/content/why-invest-sanitation
9. UN Water. (2009). Sanitation is an investment with high economic returns. Retrieved from http://www.wsscc.org/sites/default/files/sfa_factsheet_economic_benefits_2009_en_0.pdf
10. Science and Technology World Website. (2014). “Sanergy turns poop into profit in Kenya’s slum.” Retrieved from http://en.twwtn.com/Bignews/72260.html
11. Esper, H., London, T., & Kanchwala, Y. (2013). Improved Sanitation and Its Impact on Children: An Exploration of Sanergy. Impact Case Study No. 2. Ann Arbor: The William Davidson Institute. Copyright, 3-3. Retrieved from http://wdi.umich.edu/research/bop/projects/field-based-projects/Child%20Impact%20Case%20Study%202%20-%20Improved%20Sanitation%20-%20Sanergy.pdf
12. Landwatch (2011). Kenya Land for Sale. Obtained from http://www.landwatch.com/Kenya_land_for_sale/Land’
13. USAID. (MDG Image). Obtained from http://www.healthpolicyinitiative.com/index.cfm?id=onlineCDs&groupID=7
14. USAID. (2010). The Hygiene Improvement Project (HIP). Obtained from http://hip.fhi360.org/page/107.html
15. USAID. (2013). Real Impact: Ethiopia Hygiene Improvement Project. Obtained from http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/water-and-sanitation/real-impact-ethiopia
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH)”. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/global/diarrhea-burden.html
17. Hailu, D., Rendtorff-Smith, S., & Tsukada, R. (2011). Small-scale water providers in Kenya: Pioneers or predators. UNDP. Retrieved from http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Poverty%20Reduction/Inclusive%20development/Kenya%20paper(web).pdf
18. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). (2014).WASH POST- 2015: proposed targets and indicators for drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene. Retrieved from http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/post-2015-WASH-targets-factsheet-12pp.pdf
19. CARE International. (2013). WASCH Monitoring and Evaluation Tools. Retrieved from http://water.care2share.wikispaces.net/file/detail/Monitoring%20and%20Evaluation%20Tools.zip
Open defecation costs Kenya $88 million USD per year and to eliminate would only require less than 1.2 million latrines to be built/used
Government reluctance to work with informal settlements
Short-term budget plan
Only addresses sanitation and not water
EXISTING SANITATION PROGRAMS IN KENYA
“Open Defecation Free Rural Kenya 2013”
is currently underway with an estimated budget of $US 49 million and targets to reach over 13 million Kenyans, which seeks to ensure hand washing with soap and safe water.
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)
focuses on the behavioral change needed to ensure real and sustainable improvements towards eliminating open defecation. Communities are facilitated to conduct their own appraisal and analysis of open defecation and take their own action to become ODF (open defecation free).
POOR SANITATION & HEALTH CTD...
HYGIENE IMPROVEMENT CERTIFICATION PROGRAM
The WHO estimates that between 1.6-1.8 million people die every year from diarrheal diseases (including cholera) due to lack of access to basic sanitation and safe drinking water
Children under the age of 5 bear a larger portion of this burden
Diarrhea kills 2,195 children every day—more than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined
Even when there is adequate nutrition, the benefit is lost when a child suffers from constant diarrhea
According to the WHO
reduces diarrhea morbidity by 37.5%
can reduce 1/3 the number of deaths by diarrhea annually
Proper hand washing
can reduce diarrheal cases by up to 35%-45%
Reduced number of people practicing open defecation
Increased access to latrine and basic sanitation facilities in community
Reduced prevalence of diarrhea in children under five
Raised awareness of the importance of hand-washing and waste management
Progressively reduced inequalities in access between slums and formal urban settlements
Kibera houses almost 1 million of the 2.5 million slum dwellers in Nairobi
It is the largest slum in Africa and one of the largest in the world
One latrine is shared by up to 50 shacks
When a latrine is full, young boys employed to empty the contents into the river