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Matt Burrows

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Motivation

Case Study - boys kicking a ball against garage.

“Intrinsically motivated people engage in activity for the pleasure and satisfaction they experience while learning, exploring or trying to understand something new”
Weinberg & Gould 2003
Intrinsic Motivation
Think of great motivators
Who are they, how do they do it – eg Jose Mourinho v Alex Ferguson
Motivation in Sport
Sports Psychology
Ashford et al 1993 identified 4 factors which motivate adults
Physical well-being
Psychological well-being
Performance improvements

Research undertake by Gould and Weinberg 1995 suggests that the motives for participation in sport for adults and children were different e.g.
Children – Fun/Enjoyment/Excitement/ friendship
Adults – weight Loss/stress relief/ health/body image

Factors affecting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
‘’Despite the fact that elite performers’ primary motivation for involvement in sport may be extrinsic, it appears most likely that they would not be able to sustain high levels of motivation throughout all the set backs and lean periods that they experience if they did not have high levels of intrinsic motivation’’
Hardy and Parfitt 1994
Motivation in Elite performers
This theory states that how rewards are perceived by the athlete is important in determining whether intrinsic motivation will increase or decrease.
If someone feels controlled by their rewards this decreases intrinsic motivation – i.e. if winning the prize is the main motivation intrinsic motivation will eventually decline
Rewards that are perceived to provide information or feedback to the performer increase intrinsic motivation.
The theory assumes that intrinsically motivated behaviour is generated by a person's innate need to feel competent and self-determining in dealing with the environment.
Most rewards could have a controlling aspect and an informational aspect. The combined effects may either increase or decrease an individual's intrinsic motivation.
Cognitive Evaluative Theory
“Those who are extrinsically motivated engage in activity because of the valued outcome rather than the interest in the activity solely for itself.”
Weinberg & Gould 2003
Extrinsic Motivation
Why is motivation important in sport ?

Motivation is not a constant – give examples.

What factors affect motivation ? How do you get into the right frame of mind ?
Motivation in Sport
Brainstorm reasons for doing sport

Where do most reasons fit into Maslow’s Hierarchy ?

What are the implications of this model for motivation in sport ?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Some motives for what we do are conscious, some are unconscious – as a result it can be difficult to assess our own, and others’ motivation factors.

Traditionally, motivational theories have attempted to explain the reasons for peoples’ behaviours in terms of biology and social need.
Theories of Motivation

Why do we do things?

Motivation has been defined as the energy and direction of behaviour ( Roberts 1992 )

Direction = seeking out or avoiding behaviour
Energy = amount of effort put into changing our state of mind

Motivation can be defined as “The reasons why we do what we do” Stafford-Brown 2011
Defining Motivation
Michael Jordan

"I've missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I've lost almost 300 games. 26 times, I've been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I've failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed."
Motivation – a basic overview
Theories of motivation

Masow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation
Achievement Motivation
Attribution Theory
Topics we will cover
This is basically self motivation. It is the performers personal reasons for participating in an activity.
i.e. rewards come from the activity itself: motives might be fun, enjoyment, pleasure, self worth, excitement, self mastery.
It is normally associated with those performers who do not always expect to participate at elite levels, some athletes still participate for the love of their sport.
Intrinsic Motivation
Teachers, coaches and governing bodies use extrinsic motivation to generate interest in activities.

Can you think of any examples?

Award schemes, certificates, badges, trophies
This type of motivation comes from external sources such as rewards, trophies, prizes and money.
Extrinsic Motivation
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1954)
Biological and Physiological needs
basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
Safety needs
protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.
Belongingness and Love needs
family, affection, relationships, work group, etc.
personal growth and fulfilment
Esteem needs
achievement, status, responsibility, reputation
Theories of Motivation
How would you define motivation ?
Theories of Motivation
Fulfilling a need – Motivation happens when there is a need eg biological needs such as hunger, or more sophisticated needs like self esteem
Manipulating our internal state - how we feel at any point in time and what we do to change it – eg energising behaviour to achieve an aim
Motivation in sport
What motivates you ? Have a go at some questionnaires
Full transcript