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PMP Processes

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by

Kim Cooley

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of PMP Processes

Initiating
Process
Group Planning
Process
Group Executing
Process
Group Monitoring/
Controlling
Process
Group Closing
Process
Group Integration
Knowledge
Area Scope
Knowledge
Area Time
Knowledge
Area Cost
Knowledge
Area Quality
Knowledge
Area Human Resources
Knowledge
Area Communications
Knowledge
Area Risk
Knowledge
Area Procurement
Knowledge
Area - Create Project
Charter - Identify Stakeholders - Develop Project Mgt
Plan - Direct & Execute
Plan - Monitor & Control
Plan
- Integrated Change
Control - Close Project Charter - Collect Requirements
- Define Scope
- WBS - Define Activities
- Sequence Activities
- Est. Act. Resources
- Est. Act. Durations
- Develop Schedule - Estimate Costs
- Develop Budget - Quality Plan - HR Plan - Plan Communic-
ations - Risk Mgt Plan
- Identify Risks
- Perform Qual.
Risk Analysis
- Perform Quan.
Risk Analysis
- Risk Response - Plan Procurements - Conduct
Procurements - Administer
Procurements - Close
Procurements - Monitor & Control
Risks - Distribute Info
- Manage Stakeholder
Expectations - Report Performance - Acquire P Team
- Develop P Team
- Manage P Team - Quality Assurance - Perform Quality Control - Control Costs - Control Schedule - Verify Scope
- Control Scope Develop Project Charter
Inputs -
Project Stmt of Work (SOW)
Business Case
Contract
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Output -
Project Charter Identify Stakeholders
Inputs -
Project Charter
Procurement Documents
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Stakeholder Analysis
Expert Judgement
Output -
Stakeholder Register
Stakeholder Mgt Strategy Develop PM Plan
Inputs -
Project Charter
Outputs from planning processes
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Output -
Project Mgt Plan Project Management Plan Parts Scope Mgt Plan Time/Schedule Plan Quality Mgt Plan Process Improve-ment Plan Communications Mgt Plan Procurement Mgt Plan Collect Requirements
Inputs -
Project Charter
Stakeholder register Notes
T&T -
Interviews
Focus Groups
Facilitated workshops
Prototypes
Group Creativity Techniques
Group Decision Making techs
Questionnaires & Surveys
Observations
Output -
Requirement docs
Requirement Mgt Plan
Requirement Traceability
Matrix (RTM) Define Scope
Inputs -
Project Charter
Requirements Documentation
OPA (Org Process Assets)
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Product Analysis
Alternatives Identification
Facilitated workshops
Output -
Project Scope Statement
Project document updates Create Work Breakdown Struct
Inputs -
Project Scope Statement
Requirements Documentation
OPA
T&T -
Decomposition
Output -
WBS
WBS Dictionary
Scope Baseline
Project Document Updates Define Activities
Inputs -
Scope Baseline
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Decomposition
Templates
Rolling Wave Planning
Expert Judgement
Output -
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Milestone list Sequence Activities
Inputs -
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Milestone List
Project Scope Statement
OPA
T&T -
PDM (Precedence diagramming m)
Dependency determination
Applying leads & lags
Schedule network templates
Output -
Project Sked Network Diagrams
Project document updates Estimate Activity Resources
Inputs -
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Resource Calendars
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Alternative Analysis
Published estimating data
Bottom-up estimating
Project Mgt Software
Output -
Activity Resource requirements
Resource Breakdown Struct (RBS)
Project document updates Estimate Activity Durations
Inputs -
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Activity Resource Requiremnts
Resource Calendars
Project Scope Stmt
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Analogous estimating
Parametric estimating
3-point estimating
Reserve analysis
Output -
Activity duration estimates
Project document updates Develop Schedule
Inputs -
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Project Sked Network Diagrams
Activity Resource Requirements
Resource Calendars
Activity Duration Estimates
Project Scope Stmt
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Schedule compression
Scheduling tool
Schedule Network Analysis
Applying Lads & Lags
Critical Path Method
Critical Chain Method
Resource leveling
What-if Scenario analysis
Output -
Project Schedule
Schedule Baseline
Schedule Data
Project document updates Estimate Costs
Inputs -
Scope Baseline
Oroject Schedule
HR Plan
Risk Register
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Analogous estimating
Parametric estimating
Bottom-up estimating
3-point estimating
Reserve analysis
Cost of Quality
PM estimating software
Vendor bid analysis
Output -
Activity cost estimates
Basis of estimates
Project document updates Determine Budget
Inputs -
Activity cost estimates
Contracts
Basis of estimates
Project schedule
Scope baseline
Resource Calendars
OPA
T&T -
Cost aggregation
Reserve Analysis
Expert Judgement
Historical relationships
Funding limit reconciliation
Output -
Cost performance baseline
Project funding requirements
Project document updates Plan Quality
Inputs -
Scope baseline
Cost Performance Baseline
Stakeholder register
Schedule baseline
Risk Register
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Cost-benefit analysis
Cost of Quality
Control Charts
Benchmarking
Design of experiments
Statistical sampling
Flowcharting
Proprietary Q Mgt Methodologies
Addtl Quality Planning Tools
Output -
Quality Mgt Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality checklists
Process improvement plans
Project document updates Develop HR Plan
Inputs -
Activity Resource Requirements
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Org charts & position descriptions
Networking
Organization theory
Output -
HR Plan (including P org chart) Plan Communications
Inputs -
Stakehlder register
Stakeholder Mgt Strategy
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Communicate Requiremnts Analysis
Communication technology
Communication models
Communication methods
Output -
Communication Mgt Plan
Project Document Updates Plan Risk Management
Inputs -
Project Scope Stmt assumptions
Cost Mgt Plan
Schedule Mgt Plan
Communications Mgt Plan
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Planning meetings & analysis
Output -
Risk Management Plan Identify Risks
Inputs -
Risk Mgt Plan
Activity Cost Estimates
Activity Duration Estimates
Scope Baseline
Stakeholder register
Cost Mgt Plan
Schedule Mgt Plan
Quality Mgt Plan
Project Documents
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Documentation Reviews
Info gathering techniques
Checklist analysis
Assumptions analysis
SWOT analysis
Diagramming techniques
Expert Judgement
Output -
Risk Register Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
Inputs -
Risk register
Risk Mgt Plan
Project Scope stmt
OPA
T&T -
Risk Probabilty & impact assessmnt
Probability & impact matrix
Risk Data Quality assessment
Risk categorization
Risk urgency assessment
Expert Judgement
Output -
Risk register updates Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
Inputs -
Risk Register
Risk Mgt Plan
Cost Mgt Plan
Schedule Mgt Plan
OPA
T&T -
Data gathering & representn techs
Quantitative risk analysis &
modeling techniques
Expert Judgement
Output -
Risk register updates Plan Risk Responses
Inputs -
Risk Register
Risk Mgt Plan
T&T -
Strategies for negative
risks or threats
Strategies for positive
risks or opportunities
Contingent response strategies
Expert Judgement
Output -
Risk Register updates
Risk-related contract decisions
PM plan updates
Project document updates Plan Procument
Inputs -
Scope baseline
Requirements Documention
Teaming agreements
Risk register
Risk-related contract decisions
Activity Resource requirements
Project schedule
Activity cost estimates
Cost performance baseline
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Make or Buy Analysis
Expert Judgement
Contract types
Output -
Procurement Mgt Plan
Procurement SOW
Make or buy decision
Procurement documents
Source Selection Criteria
Change Requests Contract types -
Fixed- price contracts
- Firm Fixed Price (FFP)
- Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF)
- Fixed Price w/ Economic Price Adjust (FP-EPA)
Cost-Reimburable contracts
- Cost + Fixed Fee (CPFF)
- Cost + Incentive Fee (CPIF)
- Cost + Award Fee (CPAF)
Time & Materials contracts (T&M) Source Selection Criteria -
- Understanding of need
- Overall or life-cycle cost
- Technical capability
- Risks
- References
- Biz type & size
- Past Performance of sellars
- Rights
- Management approach
- Technical approach
- Warranty
- Financial capacity
- Production capacity & interest Procurement Documents -
- RFI Request for Info
- IFB Invite for bid
- RFP Request for proposal
- RFQ Request for quotation
- Tender notice
- Invite for negotiation
- Invite for seller's initial response Direct & Manage Project Execution
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Approved Change Requests
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Project Mgt Info System (PMIS)
Output -
Deliverables
Change requests
Work Performance Info
Project Mgt Plan Updates
Project Doc Updates
Implemented previously approved changes, corrective actions, preventive actions & defect repair Perform Quality Assurance
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Quality Metrics
Work Performance info
Quality Control Measuremnts
T&T -
Plan Quality & Perform Quality
Control tools & techniques
Quality audits
Process analysis
Output -
Org Process Assets updates
Change requests
PM plan updates
Project document updates Acquire Project Team
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Pre-assignment
Negotiation
Acquisition
Virtual Teams
Output -
Project Staff Assignments
Resource Calendars
Project Mgt Plan updates Develop Project Team
Inputs -
Project Staff Assignments
Project Mgt Plan
Resource Calendars
T&T -
Interpersonal Skills
Training
Team-building activities
Ground Rules
Co-location
Recognition & rewards
Output -
Team Performance Assessments
EEF updates Manage Project Team
Inputs -
Project Staff Assignments
Project Mgt Plan
Team Performance Assessments
Performance Reports
OPA
T&T -
Observation & conversation
Issue log
Project Performance Appraisals
Conflict Management
Interpersonal Skills
Output -
EEF Updates
OPA Updates
Change requests
Project Mgt Updates Team Development Stages
- Forming
- Storming
- Norming
- Performing
- Adjorning Distribute Information
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Performance reports
OPA
T&T -
Communication methods
Info distribution tools
Output -
OPA updates Manage Stakeholder Expectations
Inputs -
Stakeholder register
Stakeholder Mgt Strategy
Project Mgt Plan
Issue Log
Change Log
OPA
T&T -
Communication methods
Interpersonal skills
Mgt skills
Output -
OPA updates
Change requests
Project Mgt Plan updates
Project document updates Conduct Procurements
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Procurement Documents
Source Selection Criteria (SSC)
Qualified seller list
Seller proposals
Project documents
Make or buy analysis
Training agreements
OPA
T&T -
Bidder conferences
Proposal Evaluation Techniques
Independent estimates
Expert Judgment
Advertising
Internet Search
Procurement Negotiations
Output -
Selected sellars
Procurement contract award
Resource Calendars
Change Request
Project Mgt Plan Updates
Project Doc updates Monitor & Control Project Work
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Performance Reports
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Output -
Change Requests (including recommended corrective & preventive action & defect repair)
Project Mgt plan updates
Project doc updates Perform ICC
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Work Performance Info
Change requests
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Change control meetings
Output -
Change request status updates
Project Mgt plan updates
Project doc updates Verify Scope
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Requirements Documentation
Requirements traceability matrix
Validated deliverables
T&T -
Inspection
Output -
Accepted deliverables
Change requests
Project document updates Control Scope
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Work Performance Info
Requirements documentation
Requirements traceability matrix
OPA
T&T -
Variance Analysis
Output -
Work Performance Measurements
OPA updates
Project Mgt Plan updates
Change requests
Project doc updatesIdentify Stakeholders
Inputs -
Project Charter
Procurement Documents
EEF & OPA
T&T -
Stakeholder Analysis
Expert Judgement
Output -
Stakeholder Register
Stakeholder Mgt Strategy Control Schedule
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Project Schedule
Work Performance Info
OPA
T&T -
Performance reviews
Variance analysis
Project Mgt Software
Resource Leveling
What-if scenario analysis
Adjusting leads & lags
Schedule compression
Scheduling tool
Output -
Work Performance Measuremnts
OPA updates
Change requests
Project Mgt Plan Updates
Project Doc updates Control Costs
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Project Funding requirements
Work Performance info
OPA
T&T -
Earned Value Mgt
Forecasting
To-Complete-Performance
Index (TCPI)
Performance reviews
Variance analysis
Project Mgt Software
Output -
Work performance measurements
Budget forecasts
OPA updates
Change requests
Project Mgt Plan updates
Project document updates Perform Quality Control
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Quality metrics
Quality checklists
Work performance measurements
Approved change requests
Deliverables
OPA
T&T -
Cause & Effect diagrams
Control Charts
Flowcharting
Histogram
Pareto chart
Run Chart
Scatter Diagram
Statistical sampling
Inspection
Approved change requests review
Output -
Quality control measurements
Validated changes
Validated deliverables
OPA updates
Change requests
Project Mgt Plan updates
Project document updates Report Performance
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Work Performance Info
Work Performance Measurements
Budget Forecasts
OPA
T&T -
Variance Analysis
Forecasting methods
Communication methods
Reporting systems
Output -
Performance Reports
OPA updates
Change requests Monitor & Control Risks
Inputs -
Risks register
Project Mgt Plan
Work Performance info
Performance reports
T&T -
Risk assessment
Risk audits
Variance & trend analysis
Technical Performance measurement
Reserve analysis
Status meetings
Output -
Risk register updates
OPA updates
Change requests
Project Mgt Plan updates
Project Documents updates Administer Procurements
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Procurement Documents
Contract
Performance Reports
Approved Change Requests
Work Performance Info
T&T -
Contract change control system
Procurement performance reviews
Inspections & audits
Performance reporting
Payment Systems
Claims Administration
Records Mgt System
Output -
Procurement documentation
OPA updates
Change requests
Project Mgt Plan updates Close Project or Phase
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Accepted deliverables
OPA
T&T -
Expert Judgement
Output -
Final product, svc, or result
OPA updates Close Procurements
Inputs -
Project Mgt Plan
Procurement Documents
T&T -
Procurement Audits
Negotiated settlements
Records Mgt System
Output -
Closed procurements
OPA updates Initiating - Select project manager
- Determine company culture
& existing systems
- Collect processes, procedures,
and historical information
- Divide large projects into phases
- Understand the business case
- Uncover initial requirements & risks
- Create measurable objectives
- Develop project charter
- Identify stakeholders
- Develop stakeholder management
strategy Planning - Determine how you will do planning -
part of all management plans
- Finalize requirements
- Create project scope statement
- Determine what to purchase
- Determine team
- Create WBS and WBS Dictionary
- Create activity list
- Create network diagram
- Estimate resource requirements
- Estimate time and cost
- Determine critical path
- Develop Schedule
- Develop Budget
- Determine quality stds, processes, &
metrics
- Create process improvement plan
- Determine all roles and responsibilities
- Plan communications
- Perform risk identification, qualitative &
quantitative risk analysis & risk response
planning
- Go back - iterations
- Prepare procurement documents
- Finalize the "how to execute and control"
parts of all management plans
- Develop final PM plan and performance
measurement baseline that are realistic
- Gain formal approval of the plan
- Hold kickoff meeting Executing - Execute the work according to the PM plan
- Produce product scope
- Request changes
- Implement only approved changes
- Ensure common understanding
- Use the work authorization system
- Continuously improve
- Follow processes
- Perform quality assurance
- Perform quality audits
- Acquire final team
- Manage people
- Evaluate team and project performance
- Hold team-building activities
- Give recognition and rewards
- Use issue logs
- Facilitate conflict resolution
- Send and receive information
- Hold meetings
- Select sellers Monitoring &
Controlling - Take action to control the project
- Measure performance against the performance
measurement baseline
- Measure performance against other metrics
determined by the project manager
- Determine variances and if they warrant a
change request
- Influence the factors that cause change
- Request changes
- Perform integrated change control
- Approve or reject changes
- Inform stakeholders of approved changes
- Manage configuration
- Create forecasts
- Gain acceptance of interim deliverables from
the customer
- Perform quality control
- Report on project performance
- Perform risk audits
- Manage reserves
- Administer procurements Closing - Confirm work is done to
requirements
- Complete procurement closure
- Gain formal acceptance of the
product
- Complete final performance
reporting
- Index and archive records
- Update lessons learned knowledge
base
- Hand off completed product
- Release resources Inputs to the Initiating Process Group - Business Case
- product description /
scope detailing product requirements
- how project fits or supports company's
strategic plan
- who the likely stakeholders are
- Contracts
- Industry Standards
- Company change control system
- How the company does business
- Past relationships w/ the sponsor of
the project, likely stakeholders & the team
- Templates from past projects
- Historical WBSs
- What is happening in the company today,
other projects & their impact
- The company's future
- The company's culture
- People who may be good team members Actions required to complete project Initiating Process Group - Select a project from a list of possible projects based
on an established project selection method
- Select the project manager
- Determine the authority of the project manager
- Collect historical information
- Divide large projects into phases
- Identify high-level stakeholders, their influences, & their risk tolerances
- Determine high-level requirements & risks
- Turn high-level stakeholder needs, wants & expectations
into requirements
- Ensure the biz case and the cost benefit analysis supports
the need for the project are documented and understood
- Ensure the product scope is as final as practical
- Understand how the project fits in the organization's
strategic objectives
- Determine measurable project objectives & product objectives
- Facilitate the resolution of conflicting objectives
- Consider company culture & structure as it relates to the
project
-Find existing processes and standards
- Understand how the organization does biz & procedures & policies already in place to use on the project
- Plan using the project's planning process on a high-level basis
- Complete order of magnitude estimating the project sked and budget
- Determine form the project charter will take and why
- Coordinating project initiating efforts w/ stakeholders &
the customer
- Work w/ customer and others to determine acceptance criteria & scope
- Determine initial project organization
- Determine any milestones needed
- Determine what specifically constitutes the project's success
- Determine how scope will be controlled
- Finalize the project charter
- Obtain formal approval of the project charter
- Create a stakeholder mgt strategy Actions required to complete project Planning Process Group - Determine how you will plan scope, time, cost, quality, hr, communications, risk, procurement, & process improvement & put that info into a management plan for each knowledge area
- Refine the high-level requirements to be more specific
- Document assumptions
- Document constraints
- Create a description of the project deliverables & work
required to complete those deliverables (p scope stmt)
- Use project scope stmt to gain approval of the "final" scope from the stakeholders before further planning
- Determine what to purchase
- Determine the team
- Break down the work into smaller, more manageable
pieces (WBS)
- Create descriptions of each work pkg in a WBS dictionary
- Break WBS work pkgs down into lists of activities
- Sequence activities - determine predecessors & successors
- Estimate resource requirements
- Meet w/ mgrs to get resource commitments
- Decide level of accuracy required for estimates
- Have those working on the activities to estimate time and cost involved
- Determine length of project w/o compressing the sched
- Develop a prelim sked model and compare w/ project charter sked to determine final schedule model
- Develop a prelim budget and compare w/ project charter
budget to determine a final budget
- Determine quality stds & what metrics will be used to measure quality performance
- Determine processes to reduce need to supervise work,
improve quality & make use of stds
- Determine how to improve processes in use on project
- Clearly defind roles & responsibilities so team mbrs & stakeholders know their roles & what work they will need to do
- Determine the info needed from other projects and info to be sent to other projects
- Plan what will be communicated on the project, to whom, by whom, when, & how
- Complete risk identification, qualitative & quantitative risk analysis and risk response planning
- Iterations - to keep the project mgt plan approved, realistic and formal
- Prepare procurement documentations
- Look for positive & negative interactions to & from other projects that can affect this project
- Finalize the execute and control aspects of all mgt plans
- Plan how to measure project performance, the measure-ments to be used, when & how they will be interpreted
- Determine what mtgs, reports & other activities to use to control the project to the project mgt plan
- Develop the final project mgt plan, project docs, & performance baseline by performance sked network analysis, looking for options & confirming project objectives can be met
- Gain formal approval of project mgt plan from sponsor, team, & mgrs of resources
- Hold a kick-off mtg w/ all stakeholders, team , team mbrs' mgrs, & the customer to make sure everyone is on the same page & to gain buy-in Actions required to complete project Executing Process Group - Set and manage the expectations of all stakeholders
- Ensure common understanding of the work
- Implement the original project mgt plan
- Complete work packages
- Collect & document lessons learned
- Establish & manage communication channels
- Evaluate the team's effectiveness as a team
- Implement approved changes, including corrective actions, preventative actions, & defect repair
- Implement quality assurance procedures
- Produce project reports
- Hold team-building activities
- Follow ground rules at team meetings
- Obtain needed training for team members
- Distribute information
- Remove roadblocks
- Achieve work results that meet requirements
- Meet w/ managers to reconfirm resource commitments
- Keep mgrs apprised of when their resources will be needed on the project
- Commit project resources in accordance w/ the project mgt plan
- Manage project progress
- Guide, assist, communicate, lead, negotiate, help, & coach
- Utilize your technical knowledge
- Authorize work on work pkgs using a work authorization system
- Hold progress mtgs
- Send & receive info
- Focus on preventing problems in advance
- Ensure all team members have the skills, info, & equipment needed to complete their work
- Focus on looking for exceptions to the approved project mgt plan (rather than babysitting)
- Recommend changes to be handled in the Perform ICC process
- Follow org policies, processes, & procedures
- Increase effectiveness of processes
- Create recommendations that increase org effectiveness
- Determine if project activities comply w/ processes, policies, & procedures
- Ensure continued agreement from stakeholders to the project mgt plan
- Keep everyone focused on completing the project to the project charter & the project mgt plan
- Reeavluate the project's business case when a severe problem occurs
- Solve problems
- Stop during the project to see where changes are coming from and what you can do to eliminate the root cause of the need for change
- Implement the recognition & rewards sys created during the planning process
- Determine team mbrs who couldn't be named during the planning process
- Implement approved process improvements
- Use issue logs
- Obtain seller responses to procurement documents
- Review bid and quotes, & select sellers
- Expend and manage project funds
- Facilitate conflict resolution using resolution techniques
- Measure individual team member performance Actions required to complete project Monitoring & Controlling Process Group - Measure project performance according to the planned
measures in the mgt plans
- Measure against the performance measurement baseline
- Determine variances
- Exercise judgment to determine what variances are
important and if they warrant recommending a change
- Recommend changes, including defect repair & preventative and corrective actions - don't wait for others to make recommendations for changes
- Obtain approval of changes in integrated change control
- Create forecasts
- Manage configuration
- Control scope, sked and costs to their baselines
- Perform procurement audits
- Refine control limits
- Hold meeting regarding controlling the project, such as status review meetings
- Identify the root cause of problems
- Obtain formal acceptance of deliverables from the customer
- Identify the need for replanning
- Make updates to the project mgt plan & project docs
- Manage the time and cost reserves
- Recalculate how much the project will cost & how long it will take
- Obtain additional funding when needed
- Hold periodic inspections
- Make decisions to accept or reject work
- Evaluate the effectiveness of implemented corrective actions
- Reassess the effectiveness of project control systems
- Spend time trying to improve quality
- Get info from stakeholders to determine if project controls need to be updated
- Identify & analyze trends
- Evaluate the effectiveness of risk responses in a risk audit
- Look for newly arising risks.
- Reanalyze existing risks
- Use milestones as a project control feature
- Observe
- Report on performance to all stakeholders
- Use variance reports to help correct small problems before they become serious
- Calculate estimate to complete
- Use & interpret earned value calculations
- Use quality control tools - inspection, Pareto charts, cause & effect diagrams, etc.
- Control changes
- Ensure that only approved changes are implemented
- Work with the change control board
- Evaluate customer satisfaction
- Administer procurements
- Validate defect repair
- Watch where changes are coming from and what you can do to eliminate the root cause of the need for change Actions required to complete project Closing Process Group Control Scope - Follow the change mgt plan
- Measure performance against the
performance measurement baseline
- Measure work performance
- Control actual changes
- Control the impacts of scope changes
- Analyze variances
- Request changes
- Adjust the scope baseline & requirements
documentation
- Document lessons learned - Follow the change mgt plan
- Measure sked performance against
the performance measurement baseline
- Control actual changes
- Control the impacts of sked changes
- Request changes
- Analyze variances
- Document lessons learned
- Update the project mgt plan & project docs
- Manage the time reserve
- Use earned value analysis Control Schedule - Follow the change mgt plan
- Measure cost performance against
the performance measurement baseline
- Control actual changes
- Control the impacts of cost changes
- Request changes to time, scope, etc.
- Request changes to the cost baseline
- Analyze variances
- Document lessons learned
- Update the project mgt plan & project docs
- Recalculate the estimate at completion (EAC)
- Obtain additonal funding when needed
- Manage the budget reserve
- Use earned value analysis Control Costs Perform Quality Control - Hold periodic inspections
- Ensure we are meeting the standards
- Request changes or improvements to
work & processes
- Make decisions to accept or reject work
- Evaluate the effectiveness of implemented
changes
- Evaluate the effectiveness of project control systems
- Improve quality Report Performance - Continually measure project performance
using variance or trend analysis & earned value analysis
- Hold performance reviews
- Identify and analyze trends and variances
- Issue change requests Monitor & Control Risks - Create and implement workarounds
- Evaluate the effectiveness of risk response plans
- Work in accordance w/ the risk mgt plan
- Update lists of risks and risk response plans
- Use risk mgt procedures
- Issue change requests Administer Procurements - Monitor to make sure both parties to the contract meet
contractual obligations
- Protect your legal rights
- Authorize work
- Report performance
- Inspect and verify the product
- Manage changes
- The buyer makes payments - Confirm that all the requirements in the project has been met
- Verify & document that the project (or phase) meets completion or exit criteria set in place during the planning
process groups
- Obtain form (legal) sign-off and final acceptance of the product of the project from the customer
- If the project was terminated early, document the reasons
- Make final payments and complete cost records
- Gather final lessons learned
- Update project records
- Ensure all the project mgt processes are complete
- Update corporate processes, procedures, and templates based on lessons learned
- Add new skills acquired to team members' hr records
- Complete procurement closure and project/phase closure
- Analyze and document the success and effectiveness of the project
- Create and distribute a final report of project performance
- Index and archive project records
- Evaluate customer satisfaction
- Hand off the completed project deliverables to operations and maintenance
- Release resources
- Celebrate Requirements Mgt Plan Change Mgt Plan Configuration
Mgt Plan Process
Improvement
Plan Plan for how requirements will be managed
and controlled on the project Plan for managing changes on the project - Where might there be changes & how to limit the negative effects of changes
As project mgr, you must stand as a barrier to prevent unnecessary changes - plan in a way that minimizes the need for changes Plan for managing changes to the deliverables of the project
Purpose of Config Mgt Plan - identifying the version that is the latest version
The Configuration Mgt System is part of the PMIS (info system) Plan for how (and which) processes to complete the work
that are used on the project will be improved Baselines Scope Baseline
Schedule Baseline
Cost Baseline (Performance Measurement Baseline) Could include:
- Change control procedures (how and who)
- The approval levels for authorizing changes
- A plan outling how changes will be managed & controlled
- Who should attend mtgs re: changes
- The org tools to use to track & ctrl changes This plan needs to be agreed to by those involved in the project, it needs to be formally approved, everyone needs to believe it can be done according to plan & it needs to remain a formal doc that is controlled & used throughout the project Actions required to create Project Mgt Plan - Determine a methodology for creating the project mgt plan
- Agree on reporting formats & communications plans
- Agree on processes to report, control & incorporate changes
- Analyze skills & knowledge of all the stakeholders & determine how you will use them on the project
- Meet w/ stakeholders to define their roles on the project
- Meet w/ resource mgrs to get the best resources possible
- Give team members a change to approve the final sked that converts the team's activity estimates into a calendar sked
- Get resource managers to approve the schedule and when their resources will be used
- Work through iterations of the plan - update the WBS after completing risk analysis
- Create the necessary project docs
- Apply risk reserves to the project sked and budget
- Look for the impact on your project from other projects
- Hold mtgs or presentations to let the sponsor know what project requirements, outlined in the P Charter can't be met
- Crash, fast track, & present options to the sponsor Involves managing people, doing the work & implementing approved changes - it is about being of service To ensure common understanding:
- Make sure everyone has the latest copy of the comm. mgt plan and knows how to use it
- Ensure that the stakeholders whose scope was not included in the project understand that they will not receive that scope
- Make sure all functional mgrs have the latest copy of the schedule
- Visit w/ senior mgrs who have not commented on reports to ensure that they read them
- Make sure the team understands next month's sked
- Make sure departments w/in the organization know when the project will affect their work
Examples of being of service:
- Letting team mbrs know about info that will affect them
- Asking team mbrs how you can help remove roadblocks
- Assisting the team in implementing solutions to problems
- Facilitating technical discussions to review options Monitoring & controlling means measuring against the project mgt plan Corrective Actions are determined during:
- Direct & Manage Project Execution
- Monitor & Control Project Work
- Verify Scope
- Control Scope
- Control Schedule
- Control Costs
- Perform Quality Assurance
- Perform Quality Control
- Manage Project Team
- Manage Stakeholder Expectations
- Report Performance
- Monitor and Control Risks
- Administer Procurements Preventive Actions are specifically mentioned in PMBOK as being outputs of:
- Direct & Manage Project Execution
- Monitor & Control Project Work
- Control Scope
- Control Schedule
- Control Costs
- Perform Quality Assurance
- Perform Quality Control
- Manage Project Team
- Manage Stakeholder Expectations
- Report Performance
- Monitor and Control Risks Need for Defect Repairs are discovered during (are outputs of) the following processes:
- Direct & Manage Project Execution
- Monitor & Control Project Work
- Verify Scope
- Control Scope
- Perform Quality Assurance
- Perform Quality Control A key aspect of integrated change control is looking at the impact of each change to all knowledge areas
For any changes - see how the proposed change impacts the project cost, quality, risks, resources, and possibly customer satisfaction
A change in one of the project constraints should be evaluated for impacts on all of the other constraints
The project mgr should prevent the root cause of the need for changes
In order to evaluate the impacts of a change, it is necessary to have:
- a realistic project mgt plan to measure against
- a complete product scope & project scope Steps for making changes:
1) Evaluate the impact
2) Create options - could include cutting other activities, crashing, fast tracking, etc. (playing "what if" using project mgt software)
3) Get the change request approved internally
4) Get customer buy-in (if required) Detailed Process for Making Changes:
1) Prevent the root cause of changes
2) Identify change
3) Look at the impact of the change
4) Create a change request
5) Perform integrated change control
a) Access the change
b) Look for options
c) Change is approved or rejected
d) Update the status of the change in the change control process
6) Adjust the project mgt plan, project docs, & baselines
7) Manage stakeholders' expectations by communicating the change to stakeholders affected by the change
8) Manage the project to the revised project mgt plan & project docs "You always close out a project, no matter the circumstances under which it stops, is terminated, or is completed." List of Closing activities
- confirm work is done to requirements
- complete procurement closure
- gain formal acceptance of the project
- complete final performance reporting
- index and archive records
- update lessons learned knowledge base
- hand off completed product
- release resources For the exam, assume:
- You have a project mgt plan that is realistic and complete
- You have plans already in place for how and when you will measure time, cost, and scope performance against the performance measurement baseline
- You are accountable for meeting the performance measurement baseline
- You also measure against the metrics you have determined for the project and included in the project mgt plan to see how the project is performing
- You take action to correct any variances that warrant action
- Any deviations from the plan should be made up, rather than requesting a change to the project to accommodate them. Submitting a change request should be they very last resort and only used if there is no other way to make up the deviation. Project Charter
- Project Title & Description
- Project Mgr Assigned & Authority Level
- Business Case
- Resources Preassigned
- Stakeholders
- Stakeholder Requirements as Known (project & product scope)
- Product Description / Deliverables
- Measurable Project Objectives
- Project Approval Requirements
- High-level Project Risks
- Project Sponsor Authorizing This Project Develop WBS
- gather reference materials & inputs
-- scope stmt
-- requirements documentation
-- a WBS template
-- constraints & assumptions
-- relevant historical info
- determine how to organize the work of your project
(the level directly below the project name on your WBS and how to subdivide from there)
- identify major deliverables or subprojects for the project
- include project mgt as a major deliverable on the WBS (PMI recommends this)
- analyze each element to determine if sufficiently decomposed (can it be sked, budgeted or assigned to a person or a group - this is the work pkg level)
- breakdown each WBS into subdeliverables until you reach the work package level
- validate WBS using bottom-up approach - deliverables are nouns that are distinguishable from all other deliverables
- assign a unique numeric cost code for each element To Define Activities & Create an Activity List
- gather inputs & resource materials
-- WBS, activity list template, scope stmt, relevant historical info, constraints & assumptions
- analyze & decompose ea. work pkg of the WBS into activities required to produce the deliverable
-- brainstorming w/ project team & consult scope stmt to ensure meet project objectives
- identify possible activities from records of similar projects
- consult SME (subject matter experts) about unfamiliar material
- evaluate constraints & assumptions for their possible impact of activity definitions
- after decomposing each work pkg into activities, evaluate activity list
--ensure descriptions accurate reflect actions to be performed
--verify activity descriptions are as specific as possible
--confirm activities listed are necessary & sufficient
--very list is organized as an extension of the WBS Determine the Resource Requirements
- determine what resources are necessary to complete ea.
activity in the work pkgs
- determine quanity of resources necessary to complete ea. activity
- generate possible alternatives for unavailable resources & areas where resources are known to be constrained, work is new to org so new resources will be nn to be brought in, when many different resourcing options are known to exist, or there have been disagreements about resource requirements in the past or certain activities are high risk
- analyze scope stmt to ensure all resources required are identified
- consider organization policies that could affect resource acquisition & usage (contract labor, renting over purchasing, supplier selection, upper mgt authorization requirements, etc.)
- identify & use expert judgment resources
- analyze resources already available to you To ensure estimates are as accurate & realistic
- involve the work pkg owners & others familar w/ the work activity (those responsible for doing the work)
- consult historical information
- determine how to quantify the work that nns to be done
-- est. hours of labor nnd, # of units to be produced, # of customers to be served
- consider resource requirements & capabilities
- determine the appropriate estimation method to use
-- analogous (if early in planning or good historical data), sme (subject matter experts) if inadequate historical info,
quantitatively based durations to estimate activities when quantities of work units can be multiplied by the productivity rate, or 3-point estimating based on best-case, most likely and worse-case estimates
- modify the constraints & assumptions from the other planning processes
- verify accuracy of estimates (are there any risks w/ the estimates)
- consider the nn for reserve time (this can be modified as more info is learned)
- include the assumptions made in the creation of the estimates
- include a range of variance for each estimate Develop a draft project schedule
- perform a mathematical analysis to determine the time periods w/in which activities could be scheduled (based on resource limits and other known constraints)
- evaluate possible impact of any constraints & assumptions on sked development
- consider the availability of your resources (staff and access to materials, facilities, & equip to perform work as sked)
- consult project calendars and assign dates to activities (holidays, weekends, vacations, unmovable milestones)
- assess feasibility of the sked under adverse conditions using what-if scenarios analysis
- consider external resource date constraints (travel time?)
- select project mgt software
- review rough drafts of sked w/ stakeholders & functional mgrs
- select format for publishing schedule for different levels
- distribute prelim sked to all for approval
- following approval, baseline the sked & distribute to team To Establish the Schedule Baseline
- gather your prelim schedule including the project's start & finish dates and make sure up to date & accurate
- distribute the proposed baseline to appropriate stakeholders and PM team for approval (a formal requirement & should be received in writing from the project sponsor)
- incorporate any changes as required by the mgt team
- changes to sked baseline may require addtl resources or more time which will affect project cost & so must update cost baseline as well
- revisions made to sked baseline after it has been approved will nn to be made through a formal change process approved by mgt
- save the original sked baseline - preserve the historical data including revisions To develop accurate cost estimates
- involve the work pkg owners
- do quick reality checks w/ resource suppliers to avoid incorrect assumptions being made
- gather relevant input info to prepare the estimates (such as estimating publications & resource rates)
- determine which estimating technique to use
-- analogous when you have limited detailed info, you have similar projects for comparison & the work pkg owners have requisite expertise
-- parametric when you have reliable parametric models & the work conforms closely to those models
-- bottom-up estimating later in the project life cycle when more detail is available about work pkgs, you nn more accurate estimates & you have the time to invest in making the estimates. Bottom-up is also good for work pkgs w/ the highest level of uncertainty or risk associated w/ cost
-- combination when you have a combo of circumstances for different deliverables on the WBS
- look for alternative costing options - stock vs custom
- determine the units of measure that will be used (they should all be in the same unit of measure)
- consider possible risks that may impact cost
- ensure all cost estimates are assigned appropriate acct
- make sure your cost estimates include costs for all resources that will be charged to the project (use WBS & resource requirements to double check), level of estimate / degree of certainty & list of assumptions made when developing the estimates To establish a cost baseline
- gather the inputs suchs WBS, project sked, cost estimates & risk mgt plan
- use project sked to determine when activities will take place
- allocate funds for each activity or work pkg for the time period in which it will be taking place
- consider adding in a contingency amount to accommodate the risk of incurring extra expenses
- total the costs for each time period
- plot the costs for each period on a chart to create an S-curve of the baseline
- publish & distribute the cost baseline to the appropriate project stakeholders To reconcile funding & costs
- gather project budget and sked, project scope stmt, cost estimation & activity cost estimates, WBS (for monitoring deliverables) and contracts (to monitor commitments & requirements that must be met)
- map the project budget, scope stmt & sked to funding available
- involve the project sponsor - work w/ on ongoing basis
- partner formally w/ company's financial decision makers
- reconcile funding w/ costs on an iterative basis - careful monitoring can help avoid problems
- keep sponsor apprised of any addtl costs that are incurred
- monitor spending including any unexpected expenses
- monitor the schedule so you can adjust for delays before they derail the project
- monitor the risk identified for your project - alert sponsor if risks become reality and keep risk register up to date Creating an appropriate Quality Mgt Plan
- review the org's quality policy & determin how your p team will implement the policy
-- how team will identify potential quality probs & their potential impact on the project's product, service, systems
-- stds & regs applicable to your project
-- activities or components that require the development of operational definitions to provide a common understanding of the project's quality stds - if so, who does this?
-- org std checklists that can be used to prompt employees to perform certain activities according to a specific quality std?
- review the product description to id customer/stakeholder quality requirements
- determine the cost of quality trade-offs to avoid expensive rework to bring quality back to conformance
- review quality mgt plan & ensure it includes the project mgt team's approach to implementing its quality policy, describes the resources required to implement quality mgt, quality mgt roles & responsibilities, is as detailed & formal as required and includes how customer satisfaction will be measured & managed Guidelines to document roles, responsibilities & reporting relationships
- review the staffing requirements for your project (identified during resource planning) including external relationship requirements w/ clients, consultants, &/or vendors
- have a good understanding of any constraints that may limit your organizational planning options
- address organizational structure of the performing org and its affects on the project team
- include any required roles & reporting relations for an contractual agreements w/ unions or other employee grps
- consider the competencies of expected staff members & how they affect the project's reporting relationships & responsibility assignments
- create an org chart to document the reporting relationships
- include key project stakeholders w/ reporting relations are indicated in a hierarchical format on the chart
- analyze the formal & informal project interfaces that exist for possible impact on organizational planning
- Create a RAM (Responsibility Assignment Matrix) for key project stakeholders
- Start RAM as early as possible in the project & is updated as necessary to reflect changes in personnel & focus
- Assign roles & responsibilities to stakeholders directly involved
- Ensure each element of project's scope is accounted for in the RAM & provide a key to describe responsibility codes
- Distribute org chart & RAM appropriately to all project team members & key stakeholders Create an effective communications mgt plan
- gather & distribute contact info for all involved parties
- determine the communication needs of p stakeholders
- more detail for project team members & more summary on a less frequent basis for sr. mgt
- analyze the value to the project of providing the info
- evaluate any constraints and assumptions to determine their possible impact on comm. planning
- determine the appropriate comm. technologies for communicating project info
- comm mgt plan should include:
- description of types of info required for ea. project stakeholder
- collection & filing structure describing methods p team will use to collect & file project info
- distribution structure to whom & by whom p info should be provided
- methods to distribute the various types of info
- sked of production of each type of communication
- methods of accessing info between scheduled communications
- method for updating & refiningh the comm mgt plan throughout the project life cycle
- integrate the comm mgt plan into the overall p plan
- distribute the plan to project stakeholders Questions to ask when determining a communications technology for each type of communications
- How quickly must the info reach the audience?
- Is there likely to be feedback from the comm? How will it be collected and integrated?
- Must there be a record of the comm? What type of record is required?
- What technologies are available? Is receiving technology in place? If not, how expensive to acquire?
- Are there technical difficulties or learning curve issues w/ the communication technology?
- Are there possible access issues?
- What type of archival technology will be used to store the communications? Where will they be stored? Are there any compatibility or access issues to consider?
- Is the particular mode of tech (transmittal, storage or reception) likely to become outdated before project is complete?
- What is the relative cost of each technology, considering the # of communications & audience #s?
- Are there any global communication issues that may affect the project? Guidelines to create an effective risk mgt plan
- determine how to organize project's risk mgt team
-- possibly a risk officer to coordinate all risk mgt activities - define roles & responsibilities for ea. person on risk mgt team - possible include sponsor in some risk mgt activities (like developing risk response strategies for high risks
- conduct risk planning mtgs to develop risk mgt plan
- establish a budget for risk mgt
- consult org's risk mgt policy & ensure compliance - use risk mgr plan template if available
- describe the approaches, tools, & data sources that may be used to perform risk mgt activities for this project
-- how will risks be identified? brainstorming sessions? Delphi technique? SMEs?
-- how will identified risks be scored and analyzed so that effective response strategies can be developed? Is there an org policy mandating a specific scoring & prioritization method?
- determine & describe sked for performing risk mgt activities
- determine & describe how your team will document risk response efforts
-- tools to store risk info & track responses
- determine how the lessons learned from risk mgt activities will be documented for future projects
- if an org, sponsor or customer has specific guidelines or requirements regarding risk thresholds include this info in your risk mgt plan To identify project risks and triggers
- Perform a structured review of documentn from other planning processes w/ key project stakeholders to ensure an understanding of the following - project charter, WBS, product description, schedule & cost estimates, resource plan, procurement plan and list of constraints & assumptns
- Use one or more risk id techs to identify risks & their possible triggers - could include info gathering techniques such as brainstorming, interviewing, Delphi technique, SWOT analysis - risk id checklists - assumptions analysis - diagramming techniques like cause-and-effect diagrams & system flowcharts, influence diagrams (graphical rep of a prob showing casual influences, time ordering of events, & other relationships among variables & outcomes
- Be consistent - whichever method adopted needs to be applied systematically across the project - before the project begins, id risks in every project sement & work pkg, at start of each project segment, re-examine the risks for that segment - update list of risks at close of ea segment
- Think outside the box - be on the lookout for special circumstances that might arise in any project segment - be on the lookout for changed assumptions, new risks, or addtl impacts from previously identified risks
- Consult relevant historical info
- Group identified risks into categories that reflect common sources of risk for your indistry or app area
- Initiate the risk register To perform qualitative risk analysis
- Examine the lists of identified risks - are they all identified & completely documented?
- Analyze the data available for ea risk to assign a data precision ranking score - is the source and amount of data sufficient (reliable & good quality) to adequately analyze the risk
- Determine the org's risk threshold for the project
- Analyze the assumptions identified during risk id as potential risks against the validity of the assumption & the impact on the project if false
- Analyze the probability & impact of ea identified risk using well-defined probability & impact scales
- Determine the risk factor scores using a probablity & impact risk matrix
- Prioritize the risks according to the risk mgt plan - id risks that require further analysis - compare the overall risk of the project w/ org risk threshold
- Document all changes to the risk register To perform quantitative risk analysis
- Begin w/ orginal estimate of time or cost, breakout various components of the estimate into manageable chunks and identify eachs' likely range of variation
- Calculate & assess the impact of changing the range of results on the overall project estimate for each value in the range
- Consult historical information for helpful quantitative info
- Use the appropriate interviewing technique & obtain probability distributions from stakeholders & smes
-- use the Delphi technique if expertise resides w/ two or more people & problem doesn't lend itself to precise analytical techniques but can benefit from subjective judgments on a collective basis
-- consider the direct method when time or resource constraints do not allow for more complex, resource-intensive methods & questions can be phrased clearly & concisely
-- consider the diagrammatic method if your expert has a solid understanding of probability concepts & is familiar w/ PDFs
- Depict the distributions in a PDF
- Perform a sensitivity analysis to determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project by examining the extent to which the uncertainty of each element affects the objective being examined if all other uncertain elements are held at their baseline values - use decision tree analysis techniques to examine the implications of choosing one or more alternatives
- Conduct a project simulation using a model to translate uncertainties at a detailed level into their potential impact of project objectives at the total project level - document all changes to the risk register To develop an effective risk response plan,
- Examine each identified risk to determine its causes and how it may affect project objectives - brainstorm possible strategies for each risk - determine which stakeholder can be assigned responsibility of a risk
- Choose the response strategy that is most likely to be effective for each identified risk - ensure risk response strategies are:
- enough to bring the risk threshold below the org's limit
- appropriate to the severity of the risk
- cost effective
- timely enough to be successful
- realistic w/in the context of the project
- agreed to by all parties involved
- owned by a responsible person
- If you can't bring the risk rating below the org's risk threshold, ask sponsor for help & develop specific actions for implementing the chosen strategy
- Identify backup strategies for risks w/ high risk factor scores
- Determine the amount of contingency reserves necessary to deal w/ accepted risks - cost & time impact
- Determine the amount of contingency reserve to set aside for unknown risks (those not identified)
- Consult the risk mgt plan for the content & format of the risk response plan - include in the risk response plan:
- description of identified risks w/ the area of the project affected (each WBS element)
- risk owners & assigned responsibilities
- qualitative &/or quantitative risk analysis results
- response strategies selected & actions for implementing the strategies
- level of residual risk expected to remain after the response strategies are implemented
- budget & schedule for responses
- contingency plans & fallback plans for all accepted risk w/ high impact
- Incorporate the risk response plan into the overall project plan so the strategies can be implemented & monitored - as the project progresses, examine trends in Qual & Quant analysis results that may guide response strategies To generate an effective procurement mgt plan
- Identify the project nns that can be fulfilled by acquiring products, services, or results - what is to be acquired, how to acquire it, how much to acquire & when to acquire
- Study the varios plan procurement input docs to determine info related to procurement requirements
- Consult technical experts to define specs for project nns
- Perform a make-or-buy analysis
- Determine the contract types to be used for the specific procurement nns
- Document the plan procurement info identified
- After the procurement mgt plan is created, generate other relevant plan procurement outputs - Procurement SOW (stmt of work), Make-or-buy decisions, procurement docs, source selection criteria & change requests Prepare an effective Procurement SOW (Stmt of Work)
- Review the product description to make sure fully understand the scope of work to be procured
- Consult technical experts to define specs clearly, concisely, & completely
- Use preferred org procurement SOW is available to comply w/ any stds & policies regarding content
- Present the info in a logical sequence
- Use consistent terminology & level of detail throughout
- Will collateral services be required of the seller as part of the contract? What are the seller's performance reporting requirements? Will the seller be required to provide any post project operational support?
- Determine the acceptable criteria for the product or svc
- Make sure procurement SOW includes:
- Project name & deliverable name or id #
- clear description of the deliverable
- when, where, & how delivery is required
- specs the deliverable must be produced to & methods for ensuring specs are met
- acceptance stds for the deliverables
- bidding process documentation requirements - references, compliance docs, confidentiality agreements, proof of ins., contractor license #s
- description of any required collateral svcs to support the main work activities provided for in the contract
- any addtl instructions the prospective seller nns to be bid on work
- Have Procurement SOW reviewed by a knowledgeable 3rd party to ensure it is complete, correct & understandable
- Document make-or-buy decisions To create a thorough procurement document
- Examine the procurement need & determine which procurement doc to use
- Use std procurement forms or templates if available
- Develop a strong set of source selection criteria based on real nns of project - objective criteria for requesting bids (this can be a bit restricting though)
- Determine a range of capabilities & experience to get the best fit possible
- How do you want your prospective sellers to respond? - in a specific form or format, what is the deadline, is any addtl documentation nnd & when and where should the proposals be sent?
- Make any necessary modifications to the relevant SOW for plan contracting
- It should probably reference relevant project docs like relevant SOW, WBS &/or network diagram as appropriate - clearly tell prospective sellers how to respond, advise of any required contractual provisions (like confidentiality agreements & certs) and criteria proposals will be evaluated on
- Could include list of qualified sellers expected to bid (to help keep costs in check), bidder conferences, supplier payment plan & how change requests will be managed
- Remember any regulations that may define required structure of procurement docs for government contracts To execute the project plan
- Comply w/ any org policies & procedures re: project execution for predictable & consistent results - make sure all contractors are familiar w/ & comply w/ the procedures
- Evaluate & select work authorization sys to formally sanction work to begin on an activity or deliverable
- Use the org's project mgt infrastructure or invent it if there isn't already one in place
- If necessary create a PMIS workable for your project
- Determine who is responsible for the day-to-day ops - for data entry of initial info, analysis of info, storing, archiving & retrieval, and systems documentation
- Evaluate the effectiveness of the PMIS for your project - avoid managing the PMIS instead of the project To execute a quality assurance plan
- Ensure that random &/or scheduled quality audits are conducted by qualified auditors to evaluate the quality mgt plan, quality testing procedures, & measurement criteria
- Are the quality parameters set forth in the Q assurance plan valid?
- Are the operational definitions & checklists adequate & appropriate to achieving the desired final results?
- Are the testing methods being implemented correctly?
- Are the data being interprested, recorded, & fed back into the system properly?
- Use 1 or more quality assurance T&T to determine the causes of quality problems of the project's product, service, systems, or processes
- Identify & implement the appropriate actions to take to increase the effectiveness & efficiency of the project team's work result to improve the quality in the product or svc To acquire a project team
- Form good relationships w/ functional mgrs
- Know when you nn specific resources
- Negotiate w/ the appropriate orgs or parties for critical resources timed w/ project nn
- Look for synergy & diversity among team members
- Failure to acquire the appropriate resources may impact project performance & ultimately result in p termination
- Sometimes have to look at lower competencies when human resources w/ the required skills & capabilities aren't available
- Look outside to competent suppliers when in-house resources aren't available
- Make sure that roles and responsibilities are clearly understood by the team & other stakeholders
- Publish an org chart to all stakeholders To effectively develop your project team
- Recognize team;s current stage of development & be proactive in helping team be as productive as possible
- During Forming stage - conduct activities that will help the team get to know one another & develop mutual respect
- During Storming stage - use conflict management approaches to help the team work through problems
- In the Norming stage - concentrate on issues of project performance
- In the Performing stage - provide recognition for team performance but stay out of the way as the team manages its own problems
- In the Adjourning stage, team members complete project work and shift to the next project or assigned task
- Develop & implement a formal reward & recognition system
- Consider co-location when feasible
- Provide appropriate training & coaching to help team members acquire new or enhanced skills, knowledge or behaviors To effectively manage a project team
- Establish good communication among team members, internally & externally
- Monitor performance of team members on an ongoing basis - speak w/ them one-to-one - see what is happening for yourself - develop a set of metrics to measure team performance - provide constructive feedback on a frequent basis - consider addtl training when needed
- Consider a quality audit to get another perspective on if the team is headed in the right direction to meet the quality requirements - the quality audit team needs to be independent from the project team to be effective
- Manage conflict using the appropriate approach based on the circumstances & individuals involved
- Allow people to have their say - both sides - demonstrate respect & acknowledge different positions
- List to what people are really telling you - paraphase & ask questions to be sure everyone understands
- Find areas of agreement
- Focus on reasons for team to come together & find a resolution
- Set expected ground rules in the beginning based on the communications mgt plan
- Follow established project mgt practices during the project life cycle
- When conflict occurs, address it early and confront, focusing on the problem
- Establish an issues log to track & assign project issues To distribute project info effectively
- Create & distribute requests for project info in accordance w/ the communications mgt plan
- Use effective communication skills to exchange info
- Use an info retrieval system to provide stakeholders access to project info - w/ security & version control
- Select the appropriate info distribution method for distributing project info - emails, phone calls, notes of phone calls for a written record of communication, presentations to highlight the important points in a report
- Monitor the communications system for feedback to make sure msgs are getting through as planned - identify any problems and adjust comm. mgt plan, info distribution method or retrieval system accordingly To effectively manage stakeholders
- During the planning phase of the project, the comm plan for each stakeholder is developed - monitor periodically for stakeholder feedback
- Face-to-face mtgs when possible w/ the stakeholders so can assess body language to is if stakeholder is pleased or not w/ the progress
- Alternatives to face-to-face - vide/web conferencing, webinars, desktop sharing, net meetings, & video chat
- Be flexible in communications for the project sponsor or other members in sr. mgt - 5 minute or less project summaries - know what/how each stakeholder wants their info or data
- Use an issue log to assign, track, & resolve open issues what are of interest to stakeholders - want to avoid project delays
- Change requests processed to update the comm plan reflecting changes in project staffing
- Take corrective action as nnd to bring project performance in line w/ customer expectations
- Document lessons learned to reflect the causes of issues and changes made to rectify them Major components of the contract document include:
- SOW or deliverables
- Schedule baselines
- Period of performance
- Performance reporting
- Roles & responsibilities
- Seller's place of performance
- Place of delivery
- Pricing
- Payment terms
- Inspection & acceptance criteria
- Warranty
- Product support
- Limitation of liability
- Fees and retainage
- Penalties
- Incentives
- Insurance and performance bonds
- Subordinate subcontractor approvals
- Change request handling
- Termination & Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms To obtain responses from sellers
- Gather & review all of your procurement docs for accuracy & completeness
- If necessary, obtain or develop a qualified sellers list - purchasing, other people in company using same services, industry searches
- Determine how & from whom you will request reseller - can advertise to expan list of potential sellers if needed
- If necessary, hold a bidder conference to allow prospective sellers to ask questions and get clarification about the deliverables& the requirements for preparing their responses - questions help to determine possible misrepresentations of word or missing info
- Send the request for seller responses to the identified prospective sellers - RFB or RFP To effective monitor & control project work
- Compare & evaluate project performance w/ the project plan - if necessary, recommend actions
- Analyze, track & monitor risks to make sure they are recognized & reported & that response plans are being executed
- Maintain accurate info about the project as it unfolds
- Maintain the integrity of baselines ensuring that only approved changes are incorporated
- Provide info to support status reporting, progress & forecasting
- Provide forecasts to update recent cost & schedule info
- Monitor the execution of approved changes when they occur To develop an integrated change control process
- Implement any existing ICC already in place
- If there isn't an ICC, must develop one for your project - gather any relevant historical data w/in org that relates to the process of identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting, & controlling changes to the project baselines
- Identify what is considered a change significant enough to require mgt approval - must know how much latitude the team has in making autonomous decisions about changes
- In conversations w/ stakeholders & pm team, identify
- people who are able to initiate change requests
- the parties authorized to give or withhold business approval to a request for a change
- who has the authority to approve addtl funding, overtime costs, & purchase orders?
- the parties responsible for executing the work necessary to satisfy the requested change, as well as evaluating the work for quality assurance
- the people responsible for managing changes
- the parties responsible for prioritizing changes and making qualitative decisions about them
- Identify how change requests must be approved To ensure that deliverables are complete
- Prepare for a scope verification inspection
a. establish the scope & boundaries of the inspection
b. establish &/or approve measurements to be used in the inspection
c. establish &/or approve the methodology of the inspection, including for dbl-checking data or measurements
d. gather all relevant scope docs (WBS, scope stmt, & requirements documentation)
e. communicate w/ all team members in advance so they can prepare for the inspection in a timely fashion
- Conduct an inspection to review deliverables & work results to ensure satisfactory completeness
- Prepare an inspection report
- Provide inspection report to key stakeholders to obtain formal acceptance of deliverables and work results
- Distribute formal acceptance documentation to stakeholders according to comm mgt plan
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