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Divya Raj

on 27 September 2012

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Transcript of Vaccine

Vaccines A Public Health Milestone Video History How Vaccines Work Vaccines Today The Future... Why don't some people vaccinate? Questions? http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/372812/january-31-2011/paul-offit 3 main types
Live, but weakened
Subunit or Conjugated Fear
Ignorance Preventable diseases
Combined Vaccines
Vaccine Schedule
Ohio State
Ohio Public Schools Smallpox Awareness
Diseases without Vaccines
Why aren't there more vaccines?
Future Awareness Diseases without Vaccines Malaria AIDS Why aren't there more vaccines? Future Education
Health Class
Susceptibility to disease
Ineffective herd immunity
under coverage
carriers Malaria
Dengue Fever
Ross River
West Nile Parasite
Fever, Chills, Headache, Vomiting
300,000 deaths a year
Infected 3 million Africans Weakening of immune system
1.6 million deaths
Present in nearly every country in the world Current drug restrictions
Less then 10% of tested drugs are approved
Too effective for long term profit
U.S. Vaccine manufacturers fell from 37 in 1967 to 3 in 2012! Without change, future looks grim
Scientists have noticed viruses pairing with cancers and other dangerous diseases
HPV and cervical cancer
New knowledge will improve the future of vaccines Small Pox
Yellow Fever
Other Dr. Edward Jenner-1796
Milk maids with Cow Pox
Test by inoculating with Cow Pox
Theory was proven correct
WHO launched global campaign to end the disease all together
Last reported case was in Somalia in 1977 1796
Small Pox vaccine inventer by Edward Jenner 2002 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1959 WHO declares goal to eradicate Small Pox from the world 1980
Small Pox eradicated Threats of Small Pox as a bio weapon prompts vaccination 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1908
Polio virus identified 1952
Polio vaccine created by Dr. Jonas Salk 1988
Global Polio eradication initiative announced by WHO 1994
Polio eradication achieved in Americas 2011
Total Polio cases: 647 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1890
Antitoxin and Serum Therapy developed by Kitasato and Von Behrings 1914
William Park develops lasting immunization through the combination of Diptheria toxin and Antitoxin 1974
WHO advocates DTP 2009
No US cases in
5 years 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1916
Measles specific antibodies identified 1963
Vaccine developed by John Enders and colleagues 2000-2007
75% drop in cases worldwide 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1881
Carlos Finlay identifies mosquitoes as source of disease 1905
North America sees last
epidemic 1936
Max Theiler develops vaccine 2010
Eradication efforts continue Live, but weakened Produce infection without symptoms
Replicate to trigger response
Not enough to cause illness
Memory T cells and B cells
Side effects Inactivated Similar to live vaccine
Ineffective by heat or chemicals
Can’t cause infection
Does stimulate response (B cells)
Booster shots
Side effects Subunit or Conjugated Uses antigens
No side effects
Inserted into microbe or linked with a carrier protein
Chemically conjugated for infants (carbohydrates) Fear Side Effects
Multiple vaccinations
Recalled Vaccines Unnecessary Disease is worldwide
Protect yourself
Protect others who cannot protect themselves Religion Acceptable excuse to refuse vaccines
HPV and STD’s Cost One child = $1,200
Excess fees
Public Assistance Programs Ignorance Resources are available
Doctor’s Office
Health Department
CDC If not for Vaccines... Chicken Pox
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Meningococcal Mumps
and many more... Combined Vaccines Prevent multiple diseases in one vaccine
MMR (Mumps, Measles, Rubella)
Tdap (Tetanus, Diptheria, Pertussis) Vaccine Schedule (Age 0-6) Age 0-6:
10 vaccines with 2-6 doses per vaccine
29 doses total
Plus yearly flu shots Must have vaccines:
Hepatitis B
Varicella Ohio Public Schools Ohio State Recommends Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, HPV and Meningococcal vaccinations
Certain groups require vaccines
Students living in student housing require meningococcal and Hepatitis B
Vaccines are given at the Wilce Student Health Center Routine
Most countries
Vary by country
Sub-Saharan Africa
Saudi Arabia Traveling? Those who
cannot... Allergic
Have particular disease
Sick or have a weakened immune system
Recent blood transfusions
Women who are pregnant or breast feeding
Ages < 6 months or > 50
On medications
Traveling outside of U.S Vaccine Schedule (Age 7-18) Ages 7-18
5 doses
Plus yearly flu shots Vaccine Schedule (Age 19+) Ages 19+
20 doses
Plus yearly flu shots 1800 Vaccine brought
to US Polio Immunity acquired through breast feeding
Poor sanitation
Dr. Jonas Salk-1952
Formed vaccine using a mixture of the 3 strains of the polio virus
Research showed an extreme drop in Polio
Vaccine approved by government in 1955
Problem: Caused 260 cases and 10 deaths
Albert Bruce Sabin created the oral Polio vaccine in 1957 1921
FDR affected by Polio 1921
Diptheria campaign begins in NYC Diptheria 2000
Measles declared elimated in US 1978
CDC targets Measles for elimination Measles Yellow Fever 1879
First laboratory vaccine 1948
Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria vaccines combined 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1884
Louis Pasteur Rabies vaccine 1885
Jamie Ferran
Cholera vaccine 1897
Almroth Wright
Typhoid vaccine 1939
Whooping Cough vaccine shown to be effective 1971
MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine is licensed 1974
Michiaki Takahashi
Chickenpox vaccine 1976
Robert Austrian
Pneumococcal vaccine 1985
Porter Anderson and David Smith
HiB Vaccine 1969
Maurice Hilleman
Firse licensed rubella vaccine Other Vaccine Milestones
Full transcript