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Module 19: Freudian and Humanistic Theories
Transcript of Module 19: Freudian and Humanistic Theories
Freud distinguished between: mainifest content= the dream's obvious story or plot
latent content= the dream's hidden or disguised meanings or symbols "Where one phrase always means your mother" Mistakes or slips of the tongue that we make in everyday speech; such mistakes, which are often embarassing, are thought to reflect unconscious thoughts or wishes Divisions of the Mind Id Completely unconscious ego superego First to develop Goal: to pursue pleasure and satisfy biological drives Two biological drives: Sex and Agression Source of all psychic and mental energy Develops from the Id during infancy Relatively large part is conscious Goal: to find save and socially acceptable ways of satisfying the id's desires and to negotiate between the id's wants and the superego's prohibitions Reality principle- a policy of satisfying a wish or desire only if there is a socially acceptable outlet available Pleasure principle- operates to satisfy drives and avoid pain, without concern for moral restrictions or society's regulations Develops from the ego during childhood Goal: to apply th emoral values and standards of one's parents or caregivers and society in satisfying one's wishes Partially conscious "Pleasure Seeker" "Executive Negotiator" "Regulator" Disagreement/Conflict Anxiety- for Freud, this was the uncomfortable feeling that results from inner conflicts between the primitive desires of the id and the moral goals of the superego Defendse Mechanisms- Freudian processes that operate at unconscious levels and that use self-deception or untrue explanations to protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety Freud's Defense Mechanisms: Denial-refusing to recognize some anxiety-provoking event or piece of information that is clear to others
Rationalization- covering up the true reasons for actions, thoughts or feelings by making up excuses in incorrect explanations
Repression- involves blocking and pushing unacceptable or threatening feelings, wishes or experiences into the unconscious
Projection- unconsciously attributes your own unacceptable feelings, traits or thoughts to individuals or objects
Reaction formation- substituting behaviors, thoughts or feelings that are the direct opposite of unacceptable ones
Displacement- involves transferring feelings about, or response to, an object that causes anxiety to another person or object that is less threatening
Sublimation-a type of displacement, involves redirecting a threatening or forbidden desire, usually sexual, into a socially acceptable one Oral Stage
First 18 months of life A time where infant's pleasure seeking is centered on the mouth Fixation- can occur during any of the first three stages (oral, anal and phallic), refers to a Freudian process through which an individual may be locked into a particular psychosexual stage because his or her wishes were either overgratified or undergratified Pleasure seeking activities: sucking, chewing an biting Fixation: Remaining in the oral stage too long may result in adults who continue to engage in oral activities such as overeating, gum chewing, or smoking--can also be symbolic as well, such as "mouthing off" Anal Stage Five developmental periods--oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages--each marked by potential conflict between parent and child.
The conflicts arise as a child seeks pleasure from different body areas that are associated with sexual feelings (different erogenous zones).
Freud emphasized that a child's first five years were most important in personality development. Psychosexual Stages Possible conflict between id's desire for instant gratification and parents ...it is how we deal with the conflicts lays groundwork for personality growth 18 months-3 years Time when the infant's pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its functions of elimination Fixation: This stage results in adults who continue to engage in activities of retention or elimination. Retention make take the form of being very neat, stingy or behaviorally rigid--anal retentive--while Elimination may take the form of being generous, messy, or behaving very loose or carefree Phallic Stage 3-6 years A time where the infant's pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals Important because of the occurance of the Oedipus Complex (Electra Complex) Oedipus Complex For boys... In this phallic stage, a boy discovers his penis as a source of pleasure and develop a sexual attraction toward his mother Based off of the tradgedy of Oedipus Rex who kills his father and marries his mother Boys resolve the conflict by identifying with the father For girls... The Oedipus Complex is sometimes refered to as the Electra Complex In this phallic stage, the girl discovers that she does not have a penis and feels loss that Freud calls penis envy Her loss makes her turn against her mother, and develop a sexual attraction to her father. Named from a Greek story of Electra who killed her mother Genital Stage Latency Stage 6 years-puberty Time when the child represses sexual throughts and engages in nonsexual activities, such as developing social and intellectual skills Puberty to Adulthood Time when the individual has renewed sexual desires that he or she seeks to fulfill through relationships with other people Critics of Freud People who agreed with Freud and his theories began the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society "Freud's theory was so creative and revolutionary for its time [that] it attracted many followers" People began to disagree with Freud's emphasis on sex and biological drives and began to focus on social reasons for personality Carl Jung Used to be very close with Freud. His "crown prince" Jung eventually disagreed with Freud's emphasis on the sex drive Believed in the collective unconscious to be the basic force in the development of personality Collective Unconscious- consists of ancient memory traces and symbols that are passed on by birth and are shared by all peoples in all cultures Created analytical psychology (more of an influence of art, literature, philosophy and counseling) Alfred Adler Karen Horney Used to be the president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, but had a falling out when he had a disagreement with Freud and was so criticized that he decided to resign as president Disagreed with Freud's theory that humans are governed by biological and sexual urges. Believed that the main factors influencing a child's development were sibling influence and child-rearing practices Known specifically for his study in birth order and behavior/personality Argued that people are motivated by social urges and that each person is a social bein with a unique personality Became known as individual psychology A trained psychoanalyst who peaked after Freud's death Dean of the American Institute of Psychoanalysis in New York Disagreed with Freud's idea of penis envy and that women were dependent, vain and submissive because of biological forces and childhood sexual experiences Believed that the major ifluence on personality development, whether in men or women, can be found in child-parent social interactions Freud's "conflicts" are avoidable if the child is raised in a loving and trusting environment Neo-Freudians- those who change or "renovate" Freud's original theory Karen Horney and Erik Erikson They believe in Freud's basic theories of the unconscious, the divisions of the mind and defense mechanisms Turned the emphasis of Freud's psychodynamic theory away from biological drivers toward psychosocial and cultural influences Freud's Theory Today How Valid is Freud's Theory? Too comprehensive Freud's psychodynamic theory is so comprehensive that it can explain almost any behavior Freud's psychodynamic theory-which includes:
1. how the mind develops--id, ego, and superego
2. how personality develops--psychosexual stages
3. how to do therapy--psychoanalysis Difficult to Test Falsifiability
Ideas such as humans' drives being limited to sex and agression and the Oedipus complex in personality development, prove difficult to test and, therefore, verify the theory Must be updated Needs to continue to be tested
Needs to include how genetic factors account for 20-50% of a wide range of behaviors and take into account how brain development is associated with and necessary for the development of behaviors, thoughts and feelings. How Important are the First Five Years? Are there Unconscious Forces? What was Freud's Impact? Though Freud believed that personality development was complete after the first five years, he never did any systematic or longitudinal study to confirm this Disagreements: Resilient Children- children raised in homes where they are exposed to physical and psychological problems end up developing into healthy, mature adults provided the children had a loving care-giver (need that relationship) Longitudinal Studies- followed children into adulthood and saw signs of theri personality continuing to develop after the age of 5 Freud's theory of the unconscious forces on our conscious have influenced the concept of: Implicit or Nondeclaritive Memory- mental and emotional processes that we are unaware of but that bias and influence our conscious feelings, thoughts and behaviors Examples: Driving a car, typing, conditioned emotional responses (fear) There is evidence for the influence of unconscious forces, but it is part of the cognitive system, not a battlefield for conflicts among the id, ego and superego Huge impact Society: Terms used in art, literature and everyday conversation Psychology: Many of his theories have been incorporated into the field (even though some have been modified and updated) Humanistic theories Humanistic Theories- emphasize our capacity for personal growth, development of our potential and freedom to choose our destiny Three Characteristics of Humanistic Theories 1. Humanistic theories stress learning about the world through personal experiences 2. Humanistic theories emphasize looking at the whole situation or person 3. Humanistic theories highlight the idea of developing one's true potential Phenomenological Perspective- means that your perception or view of the world, whether or not it is accurate, becomes your reality Holistic View- means that a person's personality is more than the sum of its individual parts; instead, the individual parts form a unique and total entity that functions as a unit Self-actualization- refers to our inherent tendency to develop and reach our true potentials The Humanistic Movement began in the early 1960's to psychologists such as Abraham Maslow Maslow began as a behaviorist, but changed when he felt that there was too much emphasis on rewards and punishment and not enough emphasis on the aspects of human nature. Maslow focused his humanistic theory on self-actualization and our desire to satisfy our needs So can anyone name those needs for me? Self-actualization- the development and fulfillness of one's unique human potential Came up with the idea after studying the lives of highly productive people including Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein and Eleanor Roosevelt Said that these individuals were able to meet self-actualization need because they had developed certain personality characteristics including: They perceive reality accurately
They are independent and autonomous
They prefer to have a deep, loving relationship with only a few people
They report peak experiences which are moments of great joy and satisfaction Everyone has a self-actualization tendency which motivates us to become the best kind of person we are capable of becoming Carl Rogers Trained in Freud's Psychodynamic Theory, but disagreed with the emphasis on the unconscious and the forces on biological urges Came up with the Self Theory Self Theory- is based on two major assumptions: Personality development is guided by each person's unique self-actualization tendency Each of us has a personal need for positive regard By self-actualization theory, Rogers means= an inborn tendency for us to develop all of our capacities in the ways that best maintain and benefit our lives (Refers to both biological and psychological functions) Self (Self-Concept)- how we see or describe ourselves. The self is made up of many self-perceptions, abilities, personality characteristics, and behaviors that are organized and consistent with one another Self Personality is based on self, because our self-concept will influence our personalities by affecting our behaviors, feelings and thoughts Positive self-concept Negative self-concept Real Self vs. Ideal Self Real Self is based on our actual experiences and represents how we really see ourselves
Ideal Self is based on our hopes and wishes and reflects how we wouldlike to see ourselves Personality problems occur when the real self and ideal self are contradicting Help the contradiction by paying attention to our actual experiences, trying to have positive experiences and paying oless attention to the expectations of others. * All Humans have a Need for Positive Regard Positive regard- includes love, sympathy, warmth, acceptance, and respect which we crave from family, friends, and people important to us Successful to a healthy development for successful interpersonal relations. Conditional and Unconditional Positive Regard Where dogs will never judge us...our friends and family may not be as open Conditional Positive Regard- the positive regard we receive if we behave in certain acceptable ways, such as living up to or meeting the standards of others Though this is radical, conforming to something to please others may cause negative self-concept Unconditional Positive Regard- the warmth, acceptance, and love that others show you because you are valued as a human being even though you may disappoint people by behaving in ways that are different from their standards or values or the way they think This fosters healthy self-concepts, sadly people usually receive conditional positive regard Importance of Self-Actualization Rogers believed that we will experience the greatest self-actualization if we work to remove situational problems, resolve our personal problems, and receive unconditional positive regard. Evaluation of Humanistic Theories Impact: mainly in counseling, clinical settings, and personal growth programs where self-concept, self-actualization and self-fulfilment have proven useful in the development of healthy personalities and interpersonal relationships
Driven by positive forces that point us toward realizing our good and true selves Criticisms: No proven evidence that an inherent, biological tendency to self-actualization really exists.
People see them as "a wonderfully positive view of human nature or a very hopeful philosophy of life rather than a scientific expanation of personality development Shyness shyness-a feeling of distress that comes from being tense, stressed or awkward in social situations and from worrying about and fearing rejection Sometimes this becomes so serious that people are even unable to use the internet Philip Zimbardo, a shyness researcher and later head of the APA founded a Shyness clinic to help people with this problem 40% of adults say they feel mild, but chronic shyness, but can hide it
20% of adults have severe shyness and are unable to hide their pain and distress Two methods are used to explain and treat shyness: Psychodynamic Approach Social Cognitive Theory Used to answer the question: What causes shyness? Unresolved conflicts during one of the psychosexual stages Defense mechanisms For example, a man who is shy is said to have been overfed by his mother, who would feed him constantly so he would never cry or whimper Displacement may have been used, by focusing feelings on something he or she thought they could handle better (something less threatening) Advantage of this approach Used to Treat Shyness: Depends upon the Therapist Suggests a number of causes, but conscious and unconscious may contribute to the situation Disadvantage of this approach Difficult to verify through experimental methods Breaks shyness down into three observable components: Cognitive Behavioral Environmental Advantage of this approach Disadvantage of this approach Inheriting a nervous system that is easily aroused by novel stimuli Have very few social and communication skills meaning that they are continually punished during social interactions (forced to suffer through it) Giving people personality tests has shown that shy people are overly self-conscious, which leads to worrisome thoughts and irritational beliefs that interfere with social functioning Breaks it down into measurable and observable components which can each be studied using experimental method Easy to overlook certain influences like conditioned emotional behaviors Projective Tests Psychological Assessment- the use of various tools, such as physological tests and/or interviews, to measure various characteristics, traits, or abilities in order to understand behaviors and predict future performances or behaviors Personality Tests- used to measure observable or overt traits and behaviors as well as unobservable or covert characteristics. Personality tests are used to identify personality problems and psychological disorders as well as to predict how a person might behave in the future Ability Tests- include achievement tests, which measure what we have learned: aptitude tests, which measure our potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill; and intelligence tests, which measure our general potential to solve problems, think abstractly, and profit from experience Projective Tests- require individuals to look at some meaningless object, or ambiguous photo and describe what they see. In describing or making up a story about the ambiguous object, individuals are assumed to project both their conscious and unconscious feelings, needs and motives TAT- involves showing a person a series of 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations and asking the person to make up a story about what the people are doing or thinking in each situation TAT Rorschach's Inkblots Rorschach Inkblot test is used to assess personality by showing a person a series of ten inkblots and asking the person to describe what he or she thinks the image is