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History of Special Education
Transcript of History of Special Education
Right to Education for Students with Disabilities
Diana v. State Board of Education
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Mills v. Board of Education, District of Columbia 1972
Pennsylvania had restriction for students with disabilities. They believe
certain mental development at the age of 8 years old is incapable to learn in learn. Students with disabilities were ineligible for school. Instead they were given options for home school, private schools, or tutor.
In 1972, PARC v. Pennsylvania has change special education. The case establish free education for children with disabilities. The court decision on this case lead to special education and guarantee free and appropriate education and related services for students with disabilities. Today, children with disabilities has the opportunity to have an education. Students with disabilities have the opportunity to work in a mainstream classroom to ensure equal education.
In 1972, Mills v. Board of Education extended the right to education. It ruled schools would provide programs for students with disabilities even though the lack of funds in the school district.
The case was significant to special
education because it gave students with disabilities to continue their education without any restriction due to budget cuts. The school will provide education to students.
Society looked at this case a a
financial issue because certain districts were not able to support programs without the funds. However, Mills v. Board of Education ensure programs for all students with disabilities. Programs for "special needs" and "exceptional" students became an important terms. Special needs regarding behavior problems, mental retardation, and learning disabilities. Mills v. Board of Education establish the term Zero Reject, which means no students can be denied of an equal education.
September 29, 2014
Segregation is Banned
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
Protection for Students
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)
Before the EAHCA was established, students were denied education due to their IQ scores. Some students with disabilities had options to private schools, which segregated them from others students or no education.
In 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was established. The act "required all schools receiving federal funding to provide handicapped children equal access to education and mandated that they be placed in the least restrictive educational environment possible" (Moody, 2012, para. 1). EAHCA later became Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA provides protection for students who qualified for a special education services.
Society is caring more for special
education. Their are acts that protects students with disabilities. EAHCA is a significant event because it allows teachers, schools, and parents involve in the child's education. The terms are more specific such as Individualize Education Program (IEP) and Free Appropriate Public Education.
HISTORY OF SPECIAL EDUCATION
Larry P . v. Riles (1979)
In 1954, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas was known to be Supreme Court's greatest decision. Linda Brown, a 9 year old girl, was not able to attend a school near her house because she was African American. Instead her dad would walk her to an all African American school miles away. Oliver Brown stated that segregation violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.
Thurgood Marshall and his team brought the case to Supreme court. With the help of Chief Justice Earl Warren, the court unanimously ruled that separate but equal has no place in the Constitution."
An uproar of cheers filled the court room from African Americans.
It was a breakthrough for African American students. Students were able to attend school and receive equal education. African American were integrated into public schools.
The term "separate but equal" became a well known statement. The court's decision separate was not equal in the education system. Brown v. Board of Education did not focus on special education, but it did set the foundation for future cases on equality in education and special education. Brown v. Board of Education became significant in shaping special education. The case brought recognition to racial segregation. Therefore the movement continue to secure rights for students with disabilities for equal education according to the Fourteenth Amendment.
Professor Sarah Wisdom
In 1970 a student name Diana, a Mexican-American student, struggled. She was given an IQ test, and the results showed she had mild retardation. Diana was place in Educably Mentally Retarded class. EMR classes focus on social and functional skills instead of a structure curriculum,
Diana v. State Board of Education argued that students should not be place in EMR classes due to IQ test. IQ test was invalid, and students should not be tested in a language the cannot understand. The court ruled the case was violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.
The Diana v. State Board of Education uses the term "retardation" to label students with disabilities. The term retardation brings negative meaning to special education and students with disabilities. In 2013, "mental retardation" has changed to "intellectual disability." The case gave minority student the opportunity to be assess in their own language for class placements. Results for the assessments will place them in the appropriate class and programs. Diana v. State Board of Education was a significant event that shape special education. It provide proper assessments for class placements. Therefore, minority students and students with disabilities can be place in classes and programs that can help them with their needs.
IDEA Protection for Students with disabilities
1. Zero Reject - students cannot be rejected or denied education
2. IEP- Individualize Education Program to fit students needs from 3-21.
3. Appropriate Evaluation- students will be assess and me place in proper education level.
4. Procedural Safeguards- teachers can seek outside assistance.
5. Parent/Child Participation- Both parents and child participate in decision making.
6. FAPE- Free Appropriate Public Education.
Larry P. an African-American student, attended school in San Francisco School District. He was given an IQ test, and the results showed Larry had mild retardation. Similar to
Diana v. Board of Education
, Larry was placed in EMR classes. The court ruled schools should not discriminate against minorities. IQ test were prohibit to determine class placements.
The case became important to
the education system. It gave minorities an opportunity to be assess properly.
IQ test did not show African-
American potential and skills.
Prohibits IQ test for Class Placements
Wyatt v. Stickney
Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley (1982)
Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education (1989)
Ricky Wyatt was sent to a Bryce Hospital in Alabama at the age of 15 because he was troublesome in school.
Wyatt was treated for mental illness, but he was not tested for mental illness.
People were committed involuntary
Wyatt v. Stickney raised questions about individual rights and civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendment.
The court ruling was "people who are involuntarily committed to state institutions because of mental illness or developmental disabilities have a constitutional right to treatment that will afford them a realistic opportunity to return to society" (Disability Justice, 2014, para 1. )
During 1971, society saw mental illness or people with disabilities as a disease that should be cured through mistreatment of medicine.
"mental illness" or "developmental disabilities" were commonly use during this trial. The term mental illness portrays incompetent, crazy, and scary.
Wyatt v. Stickney served as a blueprint for civil rights for people with disabilities. It became one of the most important case to ensure proper treatment to help people with their disabilities.
Civil Rights for Patients
Amy Rowley was a kindergarten student. She was deaf and required a sign language interpreter. After two weeks, the interpreter concluded Amy did not need his service.
In first grade Amy continue to do well in school academically and socially with the help of FAPE and IEP.
However, Amy parents insisted she needs a sign language interpreter to assist her handicap.
The Rowleys brought it to court and questioned FAPE and "appropriate education"
The court ruled Amy did well from grade to grade and did not an sign language interpreter.
Board of Education v. Rowley has looked into the term "appropriate." Amy's parents did not think FAPE provide their daughter with the highest education. FAPE provide free and appropriate service to students.
Board of Education v. Rowely focused on IEP and FAPE. Schools followed guidelines and assessment to provide the appropriate programs and assistance for students with disabilities.
The case became significant in shaping special education because it brought up questions about IEP and FAPE. The Supreme Court looked into the case and decided FAPE did not state about maximum potential. There were mix feelings an opinion about the Board of Education v. Rowley.
IEP and FAPE "appropriate education?"
Daniel a six year old student who has down syndrome was place in a half day preschool.
His parents requested Daniel to be among other students in the mainstream classroom.
In the mainstream classroom, Daniel was not benefiting for the class placement.
The court decide to put Daniel in an all-day preschool.
Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was form to ensure individualize programs in a least restrictive environment.
Daniel RR. v. State Board of Education became a significant case that shape special education. It provide service and protection for students with disabilities.
(Carlos Sandoval, 2011)
Beyerle, D. (2011).
Tuscaloosa man whose case changed mental health care in U.S. has died
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isability Justice. (2014).
Wyatt v. Stickney
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Gargiulo, R.M. (2012).
Special education in contemporary society: an introduction to exceptionality
. (p 45-48): Sage publications.
National Resource of ADHD. (n.d).
IDEA (The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from, http://www.help4adhd.org/
Sherwood Best. (n.d.).
Larry P. v. Riles
[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved September 27, 2014, from http://image.slidesharecdn.com/larryp-v-
Sherwoord Best. (n.d) Diana v. State Board of Education: Assessing children who are linguistically diverse. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://
Sherwood Best. (n.d.).
Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson SD v. Rowley: First official interpretation of "appropriate" in FAPE
. Retrieved September 27, 2014, from .http://
The Supreme Court. (2007).
Brown v. Board of Education
. Retrieved September 25, 2014, from, http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html
(Sherwood Best, n.d.)