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ACADEMIC WRITING: Process Writing

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by

Hala AbdElGaffar

on 26 October 2013

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Transcript of ACADEMIC WRITING: Process Writing

Process Writing
The process pattern of organization is especially important in scientific and academic writing.
A process is an
action
that proceeds through a series of
steps
and achieves a desired goal.
Process analysis explains
how to do something
(so the reader can do it) or
how

something works
(so the reader can understand it).

Description: Process
Example
Describe the digestive process.
Describe the process of photosynthesis.
Describe the process of ionic bonding.
What are the steps used for software instillation.
How can a computer virus be removed.
Describe the process of product development.
Describe the process of team building
A process analysis will answer the following questions:
What is to be done?
How long will it take? What will be needed?
Where should it happen and when should it happen?
What are the steps needed to complete the action?
Are any parts of the process overly dangerous, very complicated, or overly easy?

A process analysis often includes the sequence, the instructions, and any procedures along the way.
More Examples
Describe the directions to set the clock on an iphone.
Describe the steps for drawing an animation character.
Describe the stages of growth of a plant.
Describe the procedures for dealing with emergencies,
How can a flat tire be changed?
A process analysis often closely resembles step-by-step instructions.
Paragraphing
BODY PARAGRAPHS
Each major step is usually given an entire body paragraph, and, when necessary, a series of smaller steps can be combined and included in one body paragraph. Do not forget to forewarn your readers of any possible dangers or cautions during the operation.
CONCLUSION
describes the results of the operation.
The conclusion is a good place in your paper to go over the major steps once again, just to insure that your readers have done them all. With some jobs, like changing a tire, missing a step will be quite clear, because the job will not get finished.
Reader Awareness
Consider your purpose and what your audience already knows.
Consider the level of skills your readers bring to the operation. If they know quite a bit about the operation, then don't bore them with unnecessary details. However, if you are uncertain about your readers and their experiences, then make sure that you provide sufficient details for them to safely and satisfactorily complete the entire operation.
Chronological Order (order of Time)
In chronological order or time order, items, events, or even ideas are arranged in the order in which they occur.

This pattern is marked by such transitions as:
first, first of all, second, third, next, then, the following morning, a few hours later, meanwhile, at the same time, as soon as, still later, upon completion, by noon, when, before, after, preceding this, following this, simultaneously, concurrently, and so on.
Spatial Order
In this pattern, items are arranged according to their physical position or relationships.
� From left to right
� From top to bottom
� From outside to inside
� From north to south, east to west
� From largest to smallest, bigger to smaller
� From one room to another room
� From nearest to farthest or vice versa
Logical Order
(Order of Importance)
In this pattern, items are arranged according to importance or logical sequence. Typical transitions would include more important, most difficult, by far the most expensive, even more damaging, worse yet, and so on.
Other forms of organization may be from:
important to least important (or the opposite)
general-to-specific order,
specific-to general order,
most-familiar-to-least-familiar,
simplest-to-most-complex,
order of frequency,
order of familiarity,
and so on.
Team Building
In order to create a cohesive team unit it is important for team members to be aware of this and work towards it. Basically, groups should attempt to foster an “atmosphere of tolerance and acceptance” so they can assure openness and honesty and hence, increase their risk taking and intermember attraction. Moreover, they can reward members who make risky self-disclosures or give honest feedback to other group members. They should make sure group members know that they are expected to “like each other” and help other members. Most importantly, group leaders ought to act as examples and make sure that the group composition and expectations of the group members are in line with the main goal by helping redirect the group when necessary.
Body Building
Most people are looking to grow muscle mass, and burn calories more efficiently. It doesn't happen overnight but it can be achieved by follow these steps consistently. First, it is important to increase caloric intake. If currently consuming 2,000 calories a day, one should boost that to about 2,500 calories. Second, it is essential to get enough protein to support muscle growth; at least 1 to 2 grams of protein for every pound of body weight. For example, a young man who weighs 180 pounds should consume at least 180 to 360 grams of protein every day. Third, the body needs a sufficient amount of water to build muscle at an optimal rate. Finally, a good diet is required for the body to be able to maximize muscle building potential, but rebuilding stronger muscles must be achieved by rigorous exercise.
Describe the process of garbage disposal
First watch the video and take notes.

Make an outline of main ideas.
Write a draft.
Peer-edit the draft.
Make necessary amends.
Send your work via email to your instructor for correction and grade.
Watch and write
by Hala AbdElMoneim AbdAllah
Organization
There are 3 ways to organize information in process writing:
1.
Chronological (order of time).
2.
Spacial (physical space)
3.
Logical ( order of importance)
Planning: Brainstorm
Keep the reader's needs in mind
Explain reasons for performing steps
Describe unfamiliar materials or equipment
Define terms
Warn readers of possible problems or challenges they may encounter
AVOID
vague instructions or unnecessary details
unnecessary shifts in tense, person, voice or mood
INTRODUCTION
gives an overview of the entire process, along with the any needed items, ending with a one sentence description of the entire operation as a thesis statement.
There are six basic science process skills:
• Observation
• Communication
• Classification
• Measurement
• Inference
• Prediction
These basic skills are integrated together when scientists design and carry out experiments.
Using Transitions in Process Analysis
Read the paragraph that follows, and fill in the blanks with transitions
Starting a club on campus is easier than most students realize. _____ , ask other students you know or who are in your class if they are interested in being a member of the kind of club you want to start. _____ you have a group of at least ten people, talk about what you would like the club to be or do. _____ , talk to one of your instructors or your adviser about being a faculty adviser. _____ , work with that person to write up a short description of the club: what it does, why it is valuable, what its purpose is. _____ , contact the student government or student activities office, and ask how you should proceed. You might be asked how much funding you will need. If you are asked, prepare a simple budget. Make an appointment to attend a student government meeting where you will talk about the club. _____ , get started. You will meet other people with similar interests, and you will learn more than you ever thought. Best of all, you will have a surprising amount of fun.
How does a hybrid car work?
Note taking
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