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Chapter 7: The French Revolution & Napoleon
Transcript of Chapter 7: The French Revolution & Napoleon
The French Revolution and Napoleon
The French Revolution Begins
Napoleon rose to power in France and built a vast empire that included much of Europe.
The Old Regime
Napoleon was finally defeated, but revolutionary ideals and the postwar peace settlement affected Europe for many years.
Napoleon Forges an Empire
Reform and Terror
was born in the Mediterranean, on an island called Corsica.
were french citizens who broke into a prison to slaughter nobels and priests accused of political offenses.
granted all men the right to vote not just property owners.
Napoleon Seizes Power
The Assembly Reforms France
Committee of public safety
was created to save the revolution, it had twelve members who had basically absolute power
A Limited Monarchy
Napoleon Rules Over France
ahahaha I am a new king of Europe!!
Napoleon's risky strategies and presence won him many battles
and an empire- but only for a while.
He was born to poor, lesser nobles.
Early in his military career, he cast out the British from a port in France and won battles against Austria
This was the beginning of his advance in the political world.
Merchants, bankers and lawyers.
stated in a speech in 1794 "you need horror in order to achieve the goals of the revolution."
Strategies included swiftness and large armies.
He was made a life-long consul in 1802, and became Emperor of the French in 1804. *crowned himself Emperor*
The Rights of Man
was a group of people who ran France from 1795 to 1799.
was a new set of laws that reinforced citizen's equality and religious freedon, but limited women's rights.
, or added outright, land for France
A Growing Empire
In 1789, France had three social estates:
First and Second estates people enjoyed
their wealth and privileges of paying almost nothing in taxes
He was also a bold and forceful ruler;
Napoleon boosted French morale and pride.
Olympe de Gouges
was a female journalists who stressed the need for everyone to have equal rights; she wanted a declaration of the rights of woman.
Only Britain was left standing, outside of Napoleon's rule.
was people with the same ethnicty helped to create a new nation.
stopped European ports from taking in British goods. The British stopped people from entering/exiting their ports, too. *blockade*
Unfortunately for Napoleon, the Continental System did not weaken Britain.
Request for Estate General
8. From the port city of
; the troops marched to a new song. This song later became the national anthem of france.
- government's spending exceeds taxes
This stop in trade raised people's suspicions and opinions against Napoleon.
A Backfire in Strategies
Napoleon's nationalistic ideals boosted country morale, but he was still an outsider.
9. After a while everything becane
(non religious.) The effect of this was, they banned religious festivals and replaced them with secular celebrations.
Frequent wars like Seven Years
War and the American Revolution got the French into more debt.
Spain organized anti-French
, or hit-and-run, attacks against the French army
As a result Louis was a prisoner in his own kingdom, and moved into Tuileries Palace in Paris.
Time for a
Lavish lifestyle of nobles also contributed economic problems. Louis doubles the national debt; banks stop lending him money. He doesn't stop trying to spend.
The French invaded Moscow in 1812, but could not survive the Russian winter. They returned home.
On this return home, soldiers in Napoleon's once
died or left, leaving only 10,000 to return. They began with 400,000.
The main idea of section three is about the chaos that france falls into; including the killing of the monarchy.
The Constitution of 1791
set up a limited monarchy. This system of ruling was put in place of absolute monarchy which had been in place for centuries.
Napoleon Goes Downhill
The Congress of Vienna
Napoleon returned to Paris to rebuild his army, but his reputation for winning was already tainted.
Financial minister of
suggested to impose taxes to nobles.
Tried to reform by adding changing the proportions at Estates General
We are lacking of Bread!!
Unfair social system
King refused to
use a per-head vote
Louis XVI finally accepted people's demand of Estate General. He told three estates to write
, which are notebooks of listed three estates' complaints.
Marquis de Lafayette's National Guard wore red white and blue, which became the national flag of France.
War and Execution
Austrians and Prussians want Louis in charge of France; France declares war
Jacobins - radical political organization behind 1792 governmental changes.
After a close vote, Louis XVI is found guilty of treason and beheaded.
Guillotine - machine designed during the Revolution to behead people.
Prussian forces soon threaten to attack Paris.
Parisian mob jails royal family, kills guards
- Mob breaks into prisons, killing over 1,000, including many who support the king.
Pressured by mob, Legislative Assembly deposes the king and then dissolves.
National Convention take office in September, declaring France a republic.
The French army wins great victory against Prussians and Austrians.
In 1793, Britain, Spain, Holland join forces against France.
National Convention orders draft of 300,000 to reinforce army.
Napoleon backed down from the throne in 1814 after defeat in the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig.
with him! He was exiled to this island in the Mediterranean
Russia+Britain+Austria+Prussia=trouble for France!
He escaped Elba and was back in France by March of 1815.
He was, again, defeated. This time in the
Battle of Waterloo
against Britain and Prussia.
He died on the island of St. Helena in the South Pacific in 1821 after being exiled there.
Napoleon's legacy lived on:
-Expanding the Us...?
There was work to be done after Napoleon's death.
Congress of Vienna
"cleaned up" after Napoleon's time of battle and uprising.
Met for 10 months (Sept. 1814- June 1815)
Main goal? Status quo!
Quadruple Alliance suppressed revolution and maintained power within Austria, Great Britain, Russia and Prussia
QA only lasted short-term
Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte in his place
King of Spain ousted by Napoleon
Old social system, economic problems, and revolutionary people led to the French Revolution.
Young Napoleon was sent off to
at the age of nine for military training.
Here comes the French Revolution!
We are going to be reformed and developed!!
2. Who created the National Guard?
a. King Louis XVI
b. Marquis de Lafayette
c. George Washington
d. Napoleon Bonaparte
1. Which is the reason that did
contribute to huge economic troubles in France?
a. bad harvest time
b. lavish lifestyle
c. huge debt
d. bad decision of financial department.
Declared the Catholic Church religiously free but under state rule in the
Concordat of 1801
5. Where was Napoleon exiled to?
Emperor Francis I of Austria
Czar Alexander I
Prince Clemens von Metternich
Lord Robert Castlereagh
Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
A motivation of the French revolution
Third estate people worked hard to pay for government debts.
or middle class, earned a lot of money and tried to step up to upper classes.
Because of government's financial problems, French began to have huge economic problems.
During this time period, the French suffered bad harvests. People were lacking their meal, bread, and they stood up against nobles to overcome their hunger.
Governments did deficit spending for several years due to wars and lavish life style of nobles.
Louis XVI nominated Jacques Necker as a financial wizard and his adviser.
Still, regardless of Necker's tries to reform, situation did not change much. Thus, angry wealthy people requested for Estates General.
However, the voting system had trouble, because each estate had only one vote.
Therefore, the people of the third estate did not get any benefit
Estate General was held in 1789.
In 1789, July 14th, People gathered in front of Bastille, a fortress used as a prison.
About 800 French came searching for weapons and gunpowder.
Since officers refused to open the doors, Parisians used force to get in.
They killed the prison commander and released prisoners.
Even nowadays, French celebrate July14 as Bastille Day.
Third estate called themselves the National Assembly, a group of revolutionary people to write a constitution.
King did not recognize the meeting and closed the meeting hall
However, people broke into a tennis court and made the
Tennis Court Oath
, which is "never give up until they reach their goals (to create a new constitution).
3. True or false.
King Louis and his wife were executed because they were traitors.
4. What did the Napoleonic Code say?
People began to demand liberty, equality and democracy.
People started to question the inequality.
10% of the land
2% of population
This action proclaimed the end of the absolute monarchy (Louis XVI's reign) and established a representative government.
1st deliberate act of revolution.
Rumors began flying about Louis using force to get rid of the National Assembly or that foreign troops were coming to kill.
The Great Fear
Peasants became outlaws
October 1789 - Bread Protest
thousands of women marched to Versailles, demanding that the National Assembly provide them bread.
The fear began to spread from the city (Paris) to the countryside.
They broke into the nobles' manors and destroyed papers requiring them to pay feudal dues.
Sometimes the peasants just burned down the house.
Next they captured the King and Queen and demanded that they return to Paris.
Louis and Marie left Versailles for the last time, signaling a change in power and the beginning of reforms.
Read 7.2 and complete the worksheet (12-34)
Q & A
Read "The Three Estates" and answer "Skillbuilder" questions
Describe the creation of the National Assembly and the storming of the Bastille
Explain the importance of the Great Fear and the women's march on Versaiiles.
back page of packet
Examining the Issues
Summarize the factors that led to the French Revolution.
Read section 2 and be prepared for a quiz on section 1
Complete the "Taking Notes" on page 222
Complete the Guided Reading worksheet
# 6 & 8
analyze how the National Assembly changed France's government.
National Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Revolutionary Leaders adopt the slogan "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
A State Controlled Church
National Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officials.
This action alarms many peasants, who are devout Catholics.
Louis Tries to Escape
Louis, worried about his future, attempts to escape France.
He was looking for help from Austria (Marie-Antoinette's brother is the king)
Louis and Marie dress in costume
Louis doesn't stick to the schedule
Revolutionaries catch the royal family near the Netherlands' border.
Two Minute Quiz
What do the speeches by the nobles imply about the role of violence in the French Revolution?
The threat of violence won support for change.
Would the U.S. legislature treat religion as the National Assembly did?
No, that would violate the separation of church and state.
In September 1791, Assembly finishes the new constitution.
- new body created to pass laws.
Shares power with the King.
Factions Split France
Major problems, including debt, food shortages remain
Assembly split into Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives.
- nobles who flee the country, want Old Regime back in power.
- lower class who want more change from the Revolution.
Problems with Other Countries
France At War
Jacobins Take Control
The War Continues
The Terror Grips France
Not all people in France support all of the changes of the Revolution:
peasants horrified by the King's execution
priests who would not accept government control
rival leaders stirring up rebellion in the provinces
Robespierre Assumes Control
- Jacobin leader rules France for a year.
Becomes leader of the Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror
- Robespierre's rule, which includes killing many opponents.
Thousands die during the Terror, including former allies and Marie Antoinette
85 percent of those who die during the Reign of Terror are middle or lower class.
End of Terror
Another Change in Government
In July 1794, Robespierre arrested, executed
Terror results in public opinion shifting away from radicals
Moderate leaders write new Constitution
power in the hands of the upper middle class.
Bicameral (two-house) legislature and five-man
New government makes Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies.
Two Minute Quiz
What can you infer about the power of Louis from his signing of the 1791 Constitution?
He was weak.
What evidence supports the view that the 1791 constitution was moderate rather than radical?
The king retained power to enforce the laws.
Two Minute Quiz
What caused Prussia to invade France?
Fear that the revolt in France would spread to Prussia.
Why do you think the revolutionaries did not give women the right to vote?
The idea of the will of the people had become popular, while women's rights had not.
In what way was the National Convention that took office in September 1792 more radical that the National Assembly of September 1791?
It abolished the monarchy.
Two Minute Quiz
How would you summarize the quotation from Robespierre (p 226)?
What does the large amount of executions among the urban poor and middle class suggest about support for the revolution?
Virtue and terror are necessary parts of the government.
Many in these groups apparently opposed it.
Two Minute Quiz
Compare reasons that members of the National Convention and the general public opposed the Terror.
How was the Directory similar to the king before the revolution?
Weariness motivated most people, but fear motivated convention members.
Both were the executives of the government.
Study for section 1 quiz
Read page 225
Answer Connect to
Explain how war and the Kings execution affected the revolution.
pages 223,224, 226
Main Idea Questions
Describe the events and aftermath of the Reign of Terror
Napoleon was short in stature but left a lasting influence on the history of the world. He was one of the greatest military geniuses . He rose from a lowly officer to the master of France.
Section 1 vocab
Previewing Main Ideas - p 214
What did the clergy do for society that might justify their low tax rate?
Provided education and relief to the poor.
How was the bourgeoisie unlike the other groups within the Third Estate?
It was wealthier and better educated.
Did France's system of estates violate the principle of equality?
Which group within the Third Estate would suffer the most from the increase in the price of bread?
Why do you think Louis chose to raise taxes on the nobility?
Yes, because the Third
Estate had no power in government.
Urban workers, since peasants
could raise grain and the bourgeoisie had more money.
They had more wealth then the clergy and lower taxes that the Third Estate.
#4, 5, 6, 7
After years of oppression, what finally caused the French citizens to revolt?
Were these rebellions justified? Why or why not?
page 223, 224, 226
Summarize the positions of the three factions that tried to govern France.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
answer the questions on your warm-up
Read section 3 and complete one page of Cornell notes
Study for section 2 quiz
*section 3 study guide, due Tuesday
*One complete page for project
Complete the Marie Antoinette handout
Complete first page of "What To Know" -
Read Section 2
7.1 & 7.2 reading questions