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Rocks and Minerals
Transcript of Rocks and Minerals
Rocks and Minerals
A mineral is made of the same things throughout.
If you were to cut a mineral sample, it would look the same throughout.
There are about 3,000 different minerals in the world.
Minerals are made of chemicals - either one chemical or a bunch of chemicals.
Minerals are sorted into 8 groups.
The rocks you see around you - the mountains, canyons & riverbeds, are all made of minerals.
A rock is made up of 2 or more minerals.
Think of a chocolate chip cookie as a rock.
The cookie is made of flour, butter, sugar & chocolate.
The cookie is like a rock and the flour, butter, sugar & chocolate are like minerals.
You need minerals to make rocks, but you don't need rocks to make minerals.
All rocks are made of minerals.
Rocks are constantly being made, worn down and then made again.
This is known as the Rock Cycle.
It is like the water cycle but it takes a lot longer.
It takes thousands and millions of years for rocks to change.
Rocks are divided into 3 Types. They are grouped by how they were made.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROCKS & MINERALS
It is not easy to tell the difference between rocks & minerals because there are so many kinds of them. It takes years of study to be able to accurately identify a mystery rock and even then rockhounds want to know where the specimen came from.
THE EARTH'S CRUST
The whole earth is made of rocks & minerals.
Inside the earth there is a liquid core of molten rock and on the outside there is a hard crust.
If you compare the earth to an egg, the shell on an egg is like the crust on the earth.
The crust is made up of rocks and minerals.
Much of the crust is covered by water, sand, soil and ice.
If you dig deep enough, you will always hit rocks.
Below the loose layer of soil, sand & crumbled rocks found on Earth is bedrock, which is a solid rock.
What's the difference between a rock and a mineral? Let's find out!
Igneous means made from fire or heat.
When volcanoes erupt and the liquid rock comes up to the earth's surface, then new igneous rock is made.
When the rock is liquid & inside the earth, it is called magma.
When the magma gets hard inside the crust, it turns into granite.
Most mountains are made of granite. It cools very slowly and is very hard.
When mountains are first formed, they are tall and jagged like the Rocky Mountains on the west coast of North America.
Over time (millions of years) mountains become old mountains like the Appalachian Mountains
on the east coast of Canada and the United States.
When mountains are old, they are rounded and much lower.
What happens in the meantime is that lots of rock gets worn away due to erosion.
Rain, freeze/thaw cycle, wind and running water cause the big mountains to crumble a little bit at a time.
Eventually most of the broken bits of the rock end up in the streams & rivers that flow down from the mountains.
These little bits of rock & sand are called sediments.
When the water slows down enough, these sediments settle to the bottom of the lake or oceans they run into.
Over many years, layers of different rock bits settle at the bottom of lakes and oceans.
Think of each layer as a page in a book. One piece of paper is not heavy.
But a stack of telephone books is very heavy & would squish anything that was underneath.
Over time the layers of sand and mud at the bottom of lakes & oceans turned into rocks.
These are called sedimentary rocks.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed.
The word comes from the Greek "meta" and "morph" which means to change form.
Metamorphic rocks were originally igneous or sedimentary, but due to movement of the earth's crust, were changed.
If you squeeze your hands together very hard, you will feel heat and pressure.
When the earth's crust moves, it causes rocks to get squeezed so hard that the heat causes the rock to change.
Marble is an example of a sedimentary rock that has been changed into a metamorphic rock.
1. A rock is made from one or more _.
a. mineral b. salt
2. A mineral is made from _.
a. rocks b. chemicals
3. The earth is made up of _.
a. rocks b. chemicals
4. There are 3 different kinds of rocks. They are _.
a. sed, iggy, and metty
b. sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic
Let's take a look at some pictures of some rocks and minerals.
Let's play a rock & mineral game to find out more about rocks.
Let's test your knowledge of rocks and minerals with this National Geographic game.
YOU WILL NEED
Small chunk of limestone rock
Several different rock types
Pour a half cup of vinegar into a glass. Add a small chunk of limestone rock. (Find limestone
a rock identification book or buy a piece at a hobby shop). Watch closely. After a few minutes the
start to fizz. Now try the same test with other rocks and minerals. You may not see any bubbles.
Vinegar, an acid, dissolves bits of a material called calcium carbonate in the limestone.
This releases carbon dioxide,
a gas that rises to the surface as a stream of bubbles. Rocks that don't contain calcium
carbonate won't fizz.
Text by David George Gordon
Illustration by David Bamundo
Rock On--Fizzy Fun
Bill Nye knows Rocks!
Check out this Brainpopjr movie!
The Rock Cycle
The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock.
Let's check out more information on the rock cycle.
Classroom Activities for Teaching Rocks and Minerals
We will be going on a rock hunt! We will take a walk around the school.
Each of you will bring back a rock or more to share with the whole class.
We will then talk about the properties of the rocks and compare their size and shape (size, texture, color,
luster, and hardness).
We then can do research at the library or online to find
out what minerals might be in the rocks.
Rocks Around the Clock
We will be going around the school to find objects that are made of minerals or rocks.
Many doors and cupboard hinges are made with steel, lights with glass, and mirrors with quartz. You
might want to visit different rooms in the school such as the bathroom, the cafeteria, the gym, the
music room, and the art room. When you come back, you will share the things you found.
We're going on a rock hunt!
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