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The Human Microbiome
Transcript of The Human Microbiome
Humans and our microbes co-evolved for the mutual benefit of both the host and the residents.
Table of Contents
About 25% of human cells is a human body. The rest is thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes.
The Human Microbiome
- Definition of Human Microbiome
- Function of the Microbiome
- Research Methodologies
- Relationship between Microbiome,
Health and Disease
- Application of Microbiome to the Development of Human Life
Microbiome: the collection of microorganisms or microbes which includes bacteria, viruses and fungi inside human cells
Microbiota: the individual’s life history of interaction within their environment.
The Human Microbiome Project seeks to categorize the entire genome of all of our microbial 'passengers'
Recent breakthroughs in genetic sequencing technology have given us a new view into the function and interactions of microbes living in and on the human body.
We are just now discovering a connection between our diets, birthing practices, lifestyle and environment with the types of bacteria which populate various parts of the body.
Comparing it to disease states in unhealthy individuals, microbiologists hope to build further comparative analysis of the collected data.
The human body is made up of 10 times more microbial cells than human cells and they outnumber our genome by a factor of 100-to-one.
We now view the human as a 'superorganism' composed of trillions of microbes.
The study of the human microbiome is still in its infancy.
Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces, are recognized as the producers of many bioactive metabolites that are useful to humans in medical and agricultural uses such as antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals, antithrombotics, enzyme inhibitors, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and growth promoting substances for plants and animals.
The microbial distribution of human skin.
Advances in genetic sequencing techniques allow us a 'window' into microbe populations as they exist naturally
Bacterial Phyla found on human skin
Bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (greek for blue). They are often called blue-green algae, and are responsible for the creation and prolifration of Oxygen on the planet
Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax.
Firmicutes make up the largest portion of the mouse and human gut microbiome. But firmicutes are also responsible for the largest variety of commonly experienced human diseases such as staph., strep., UTIs, Pheumonia, Lysteria, Anthrax and more.
Primarily found in gut but also skin.
The main sources of energy for Bacteroides species in the gut are complex host-derived and plant glycans. Studies indicate that long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition - those who eat plenty of protein and animal fats have predominantly Bacteroides bacteria, while for those who consume more carbohydrates the Prevotella species dominate along with firmicutes.
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They include a wide variety of pathogens (e.g. salmonella, e-coli) as well as bacteria responible for nitrogen fixation (the process of converting nitrogen into ammonium).
16S rRNA Metagenomic Sequencing
Relationship between Microbiome, Health, and Disease
16S rRNA gene sequencing is a method for studying phylogeny and taxonomy of samples from complex microbiomes or environments that are difficult or impossible to study.
Human microbiome has linked it influence to even the brain and adding additional fuel to the fire that is the gut brain axis connection
The fact that antibiotics kill pathogens but in the process also causes big change in a human’s regular microbiome has influenced ongoing research
Relationship between Microbiome, Health, and Disease
Human health depends on maintaining a good relationship with a complex set of the microbiome is the recognition that the microbiome can contribute to disease in previously unexpected ways
Microbiome of the mouth, skin, vagina, lung and stomach also alter in various disease states. By using microbiome from healthy people to transplant to sick people doctors have changed the outcome of fatal diseases
Furthermore, diseases as asthma, diabetes, obesity, cancer and heart disease have been shown to be influenced by the microbiome
Nowadays, several vaccines, pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements are developed using microbial organisms to confer a health benefit to humans
Functions of the Microbiome
to digest food,
to prevent disease-causing bacteria from invading the body/supporting immunity
to synthesize essential nutrients and vitamins.
weight and food regulation and control
other health and disease functions
aiding in human infant birth and devlopment
Found in our gut, mouth, skin and elsewhere in our bodies these microbial communities have numerous beneficial functions relevant to supporting life. Some of these functions including
Infant development and the human microbiome
Immediately after exiting the womb.
Birth- 3 years
In utero the infant/foetus is recognized to exist in a sterile environment
In the pregnant mother, neonatal-vaginal microbiota changes to accommodate for the needs of the developing foetus and baby.
The microbial communities that reside within pregnant women differ from that of non-pregnant women.
Bacterial community state types which were previously shown to be associated with pathogenic or infectious bacteria were less present in the microbiome of women experiencing a normal pregnancy.
pregnancy is characterized by a greater degree of stability than observed in non‐pregnant women
instability of this microbiota could lead to preterm labour and health problems for the infant
It has also been shown that amniotic fluid of mothers with preterm labor contains a large and diverse spectrum of bacterial rDNA
Immediately upon delivery the microbially naked
infant becomes colonized by the mother’s microbiota depending on the mode of delivery.
Cesarian delivery only colonizes the baby with skin microbiota
"Natural" birth seems to immuize the new-bornsaganst certain ilnesses and populated the gut flora in preparation for breast feeding.
C-section delivered infants have lower gut microbial richness and diversity at 4 months than vaginally delivered infants for whom this happens almost instantaneously
The “hygiene hypothesis” suggests that an overly clean environment, especially in early childhood, may contribute to the development of several childhood diseases.
Patterns of colonization in full‐term infants generally vary by diet, the infants’ genetics and epigenetics (and a limited set of other variables such as diet, physical environment, peers etc.) with the infant gut reaching an adult‐ike state around 2.5-3 years of life
Newborns also acquire microbes from their fathers, sibling and caregivers.
Further colonized through ingestion of the mother’s milk; plays a pivotal role in gastrointestinal, immunological and neurological development of the infant.
The hospital of birth has an influence due to the differing population of patients and clinicians, as well as the physical environment itself.
Antibiotic use had an important influence
Breastfed infants have been shown to have lower incidences of asthma, diarrhea, and necrotizing enterocolitis compared with formula-fed infants.
Protective effect due to the types of bacteria present in breast-milk, as infants fed formula supplemented with probiotics were betterprotected against these conditions compared to those fed "normal" formula.
Current research has shown that we are conceived and enter the world on terms we have no control over that consist of hundreds and thousands of variables.
With time and more
research we can attempt to understand how all of these variables correlate and how they could be controlled to optimize infant and ultimately human development; especially as the development of the human infant from birth to 5 years of age has a great effect on his/her state of health and well-being as an adult.
Izard, J. and Rivera, M. C. (eds) (2014) Metagenomics for Microbiology. 1st Edition. United States, Academic Press
Dominguez‐Bello, M. G., Costello, E. K., Contreras, M., Magris, M., Hidalgo, G., Fierer, N. and Knight, R.(2010) ‘Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiplebody habitats in newborns’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(26), pp.11971–11975. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1002601107
Proctor, Lita M. The Human Microbiome: A True Story about You and Trillions of Your Closest (Microscopic) Friends. September 2013. Retrieved fromwww.actionbioscience.org/genomics/the_human_microbiome.html
Rogers, K. (2014) ‘Human Microbiome’. Encyclopædia Britannica. Available at:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1806911/human‐microbiome. Retrieved April 4, 2015
Romero, R., Hassan, S., Gajer, P., Tarca, A., Fadrosh, D., Nikita, L., & Lamont, R et al. The compositionand stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that ofnon‐pregnant women. Microbiome 2014; 2(4). 10.1186/2049‐2618‐2‐4
etc.... (SEE PAPER CITATIONS)