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CIP Seminar: Manufacturing

By: Craig, Isabelle, Mark

Craig Thompson

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of CIP Seminar: Manufacturing

Critical Infrastructure Protection: Manufacturing
"The process of converting raw materials, components, or parts into finished goods that meet a customer's expectations or specifications. Manufacturing commonly employs a man-machine setup with division of labor in a large scale production" (Business Dictionary, 2012)
What is Manufacturing?
How can manufacturing be Critical?
"If those are essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government" (R&M p. 3)
"Its incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on our defense and national security" (Lewis p. 3.)
Network Theory
The CI sectors are in an interdependence situation
Key Manufacturing Sectors
Canadian Manufacturers are highly concentrated in specific areas:
39.6% of industries are is Ontario
26.4% are in Québec
14.3% are in British Columbia
The 19.3% left is dispersed across the rest of the country
(Stats Can, 2011)
We decided to present you critical manufacturing by exposing a specific case, which are the Chalk River facilities.
Map of Production
What are the Chalk River Facilities?
A national research facility
An international production center for medical radioisotopes
A NRU reactor, which can produce enriched uranium (uranium-235)
A (highly enriched uranium)HEU storage facility
The laboratories are owned by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)
What Does the Chalk River Reactor Produce?
"A medical isotope is a safe radioactive substance used primarily to diagnose illness. The energy emitted by the isotope when inside a patient is detected by special cameras while the patient is being scanned. These scans essentially light up the organ and show how it is working rather than what it looks like. The branch of medicine and medical imaging that uses these isotopes is known as nuclear medicine" (Health Canada, 2012)
The Technetium-99 (TC-99m) is the most used in Canada, for 80% of the procedures (NRC, 2009)
Where Does This Uranium Come From?
TC-99m is issued of Mo-99. Mo-99 is a fission product of uranium 235 (a highly enriched type of uranium). (World Nuclear Association, 2012)
Canada produces between 20 and 25% of the world production.
Black zone: Athabasca basin
Red spot: Chalk River laboratories
(NRC, 2012)
Map of Production With Regards to Nuclear Isotopes
Uranium Extraction
Concentration in the Mills (SAK)
Refinement in Blind River (ON)
Uranium Trioxide
Transformation in Port Hope (ON)
Uranium Dioxide
Uranium Hexafluoride
Chalk River/Enrichment of Uranium
Chalk River/Processing MO-99
MDS Nordjon, Ottawa
Sell to Radiopharmaceutical Companies (US)
Further Processing and Purification
Preparation of TC-99m
Treatment or Diagnosis
Assets and Safeguards
Whats the Difference?
Map of Production With Regards to Nuclear Isotopes
Uranium Extraction
Concentration in the Mills (SAK)
Refinement in Blind River (ON)
Uranium Trioxide
Transformation in Port Hope (ON)
Uranium Dioxide
Uranium Hexafluoride
Chalk River/Enrichment of Uranium
Chalk River/Processing MO-99
MDS Nordjon, Ottawa
Sell to Radiopharmaceutical Companies (US)
Further Processing and Purification
Preparation of TC-99m
Treatment or Diagnosis
General Map of Production
Base Resources
Manufacture into Product
Ship to Distributor
Sell to Consumer
What do The Licensee's Responsibilities Entail?
Who is Responsible for Protecting Assets and Ensuring Safeguards?
Vulnerabilities and Consequences
Supply Chain Disruption
Global Supply: Dependence on Medical Isotopes
The Supply Chain: Chalk River Vulnerabilities
Fragility: Security of Supply
The Challenge of Size
The Challenge of Inter-agency Dependencies
Mitigation Strategies: Hardening the Critical Nodes within the Supply Chain
Hardening the Supply Chain: Government Response
"when the Chalk River facility is shuttered for good in 2016, likely there will be complaints about relying on foreign suppliers for an important Canadian medical commodity."
“I think it will stay quiet for many years, until the next shortage.”
Works Cited:
Thank You
(World Nuclear Association, 2012)
What could threaten
the supply chain?
Three types of threats:
Ex. a snow storm
Ex. incident in a mine
Ex. hijacking of a truck transporting uranium or radioactive materials
Natural elements
Ex. earthquake
Ex. human error
Ex. terrorist attack
What if Chalk River was Directly Threatened and How?
In the end, if a failure occurs in the chain, it is health care which would be affected
Natural elements
Chalk River Nuclear Facility
NCIs Effected
Manufacturing (production of medical isotopes)
Government Facilities (Chalk River is a Government Facility)
Nuclear energy and facilities
Public health and healthcare
Water and waste-water treatment (reactor leak)
82% of diagnostic radiopharmacutical injections (Standing Committee on Natural Resources 2010)

30 million diagnostic procedures worldwide (Natural Resources, 2009)

Chalk River reactor supplies 20 to 30% of world supply (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2012)

$3.7 billion industry (Nagurney and Nagurney, 2)
Combination of both public- and private-sector (Standing Committee on Natural Resources, 2010 )

The long distance transportation (Nagurney and Nagurne)

Time Sensitive

Complex regulatory and technical challenges (Standing Committee on Natural Resources, 2010)

Scheduled (and unscheduled) maintenance
Unexpected disruption May 14, 2009 (Standing Committee on Natural Resources, 2010)
Return to service a year later in May 2010 (Nagurney and Nagurney)


Adaptive (Lee)

Redundant (Sodhi and Tang)


Creation of new reactors

Co-operational agreements

Remove movement barriers


Secure more than one supplier
Minimize the potential for future interruptions in the supply
Fast track approval

Regulatory and procedural strategy
Mitigate the consequences of unpredicted disruptions.

use of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with alternative isotopes

alternative procedures for patient assessment

increasing diagnostic and therapeutic slots and extending the workday

addressing the backlog
Enhance the capability of suppliers and end users to respond to interruptions in supply
Develop guidelines and best practice protocols for:
Implementation plans to mitigate shortfalls
Clinical trial agreements
Development of best practices

Response plan in case of shortages

Fair and just distribution

Development of alternatives

Contingency plan

Participation of stakeholders
Five-point action plan
Licence Renewal
Information sharing
High Level Group to enhance short and longer term supply security
Alternative medical and diagnostic procedures
Internal review of research
Recent Developments
2012-2016 program to further advance the development of alternatives to existing isotope production technologies
Request for Project Proposals (RPP) for the Isotope Technology Acceleration
Linear accelerator
ATLAS OF CANADA. ‘‘Uranium Resources’’, Natural Resources Canada, [online], http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/auth/english/maps/economic/energy/uranium/1/maptext_view (page consulted on October 16, 2012).
ATOMIC ENERGY CONTROL BOARD. ''Radiation Safety in Education, Medical and Research Institution'', Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, 2000.
ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED. ‘‘Nuclear Science – Medial Isotopes’’, Atomic Energy of Canada limited, [online], http://www.aecl.ca/Programs/NRU/Isotopes.htm (page consulted on October 17, 2012).
BALLANTYNE , Meen; VILLENEUVE, Cyrille. ‘‘Evidence, June 2009’’, Standing Committee on Natural Resources, House of Commons, GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, November 2012.
BUSINESS DICTIONARY. ‘‘Manufacturing’’, The Business Dictionary,[online] 2012, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/manufacturing.html (page consulted on October 17, 2012).
CANADIAN NUCLEAR ASSOCIATION. ''Chalk River'', Canadian Nuclear Association, [online], 2010, http://curriculum.cna.ca/curriculum/cna_can_nuc_hist/chalk_river-eng.asp?bc=Chalk%2520River&pid=Chalk%2520River (page consulted on October 20, 2012).
CENTRE FOR PROBE DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION. ‘‘Factsheet: Medical Isotopes, Technetium and Cyclotrons’’ Centre for Probe Development and Commercialization, [online] http://www.imagingprobes.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/isotopes_fact_sheet.pdf (page consulted on October 21, 2012).
FLEMING, Richard M; HARRINGTON, Gordon M. ‘‘Fleming-Harrington Redistribution Wash-in Washout (FHRWW): The Platinum Standard for Nuclear Cardiology’’, Intech, [online], http://www.intechopen.com/books/establishing-better-standards-of-care-in-doppler-echocardiography-computed-tomography-and-nuclear-cardiology/fleming-harrington-redistribution-wash-in-washout-fhrww-the-platinum-standard-for-nuclear-cardiology (page consulted on October 21, 2012).
GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY. ‘‘Technetium-99m’’ Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, [online], http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/technetium.html (page consulted on October 21, 2012).
GOVERNEMENT OF CANADA. “The National Research Universal Reactor Shutdown and the Future of Medical Isotope Production and Research in Canada”, Standing Committee on Natural Resources, House of Commons, 2nd Report, 40th Parliament, 3rd Session, [online], November 2010. http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=&Mode=1&Parl=40&Ses=3&DocId=5063422&File=0 (page consulted on October 18, 2012).
HEALTH CANADA. ‘‘Lessons learned from the shutdown of the Chalk River reactor; A report submitted to the Minister of Health’’. Ad Hoc Health Experts Working Group on Medical Isotopes. May 2008.
HEALTH CANADA. ‘‘Medical Isotopes; Frequently Asked Questions’’, Health Canada, [online], http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/brgtherap/activit/fs-fi/isotopes-med-faq-eng.php (page consulted on October 21, 2012).
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NATURAL RESOURCES CANADA. ‘‘Document presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Natural Resources’’, Meeting 23, 2 June 2009.
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