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Rugby Pass

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by

Hamish Bruce

on 9 September 2014

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Transcript of Rugby Pass

Biomechanics
Newtons 1st law : Law of Intertia
Newtons 3rd law : action/reaction
Newtons 2nd law : Acceleration
Transfer of Momentum
Forces Acting
Diagram 1
Diagram 3
Rugby Pass
Anatomy
Skill Learning
Factors affecting learning
Classification of skills
I believe that my skill is gross, as it involves large muscle groups for more movementand power into my rugby pass. The muscles that are used for my rugby pass skill is the triceps, biceps, pectorials, deltoid, and latissimus dorsi. A secondary classification skill would be the open skill, this is because your noy always getting the ball at the same spot so you have to pass the ball in different ranges. But the main factor is the weather, weather is very unpredictiable and may change the coure of the rugby ball to the player (target). My third classification skill is the simple motor skill, this skill is to be performed relatively easy, when involving muscles to improve power and momentum in the pass.
Motor Plans and Subroutines
Stages of Learning
Types of Practice
The rugby pass allows me to have movement in the hands and wrist bones (flexion, extension, supination and pronation) so that the body can milipulate objects. The radius and ulna are bound to the carpels by a number of ligaments.
Internal that effected my learning was that I had to really concentrate on what I had to do, such as, muscle memory, and also I had to know what phases were made in the right order. I knew if I didn't pass the rugby ball right because I notice that the ball isn't flying at a 0 degree angle. It can be seen that at 0 degrees there is less air turbulence and hence less air friction to slow the ball down. I changed my approach of my pass so I wasn't using as much power so it wouldn't overcome my technique. The external factors was getting feed back from my teacher who had more experience on passing and was told to focus on my technique and my follow through
The types of practice I would have to choose would be massed practice because it allows me to develope my technique to a higher level of passing. The massed practice will also allow me to repeat my movement and so I can memorise it and also develope more power and my technique will be more effective. A second choice of another practice would be varible practice because I would be able to build up schema to use in game situations
The stages of my learning at the moment is associative. I am at the associative stage beause I have great movement with my body, but I am needing to focus on my technique so I can get better accuracy and power for when I am passing the rugby ball. I have learnt the basics of a rugby pass because I have had 6 years of experience, but now I just need to improve on my projectile in motion to get good flight, power, and precision on the pass. This will be done in massed and variable training
Force Summation
Force Summation means the building of strength or power. This means if I want to pass the ball to my maximum ditance I would need to use my lower, and upper body to generate a large force to make the ball travel further. For my lower powerful muscles such as my quads, and hamstring that have been generated by friction, to then connect to my hip joints, Gluteals, and Iliopsoas will generate more momentum, so I am able to have more power in my pass. When I use my legs my left leg will be used to keep my balance and to aim where I am passing. For my upper muscles of the body for when I'm carrying out the rugby pass I am using shoulder joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. For my first image you can see my Triceps and Biceps in flexion and are relaxed, then for my second image you can see the elbow joints are strating to extend and building tension in the muscles generating more force for the folow through. As my arms abduct away from the centre of my body for the follow through, my biceps and triceps are full extension and they are relaxing, I also use my arms as to point to the target to where I am pasiing the rugby ball for better accuracy.
Diagram 2
D1
D2
D3
In the first diagram you can see the left elbow my tricep are contracting and the bicep is relaxing. The bones that are involved in the left arm is the ulna, Radius, Humerus, Scapula, and Clavicle and also the phalanges that holds the ball in place. The elbow has flexion, and the elbow is a hinge joint and the wrist is a acondyloid joint.
Also in the right elbow the bicep being the angonist and the tricep is the antagonist. The bones that are involved in this are the humerus, ulna, radius, clavical and scapula. The right arm is abducting away from the body, and the shoulder is a ball in socket joint.
In the left knee you can see full extension. The bones that involve in this is the femur, patella, tibia, fibula. The left knee has flexion and the knee is a hinge joint, and the left foot is dorsiflexed. The right leg has flexion in the knee, and the quads are relaxing so that means the hamsring is contracting.
In diagram 2 you can see in the left elbow that the muscles that are involved are the triceps and the bicep. The tricep is contracting and so the bicep is relaxing. The elbow has flexion and the hand is at a neutral position. The bones that are included in the arm is the following clavical, humerus, radius, scapula, and the ulna.. The hand is still in neutral position but I have brought it away from my body. The elbow is a hinge joint.
In the right elbow the bicep being the agonist (prime mover) and the tricep being the antagonist.
The bones involved are the humerus, radius, and the ulna. The phalanges are holding the ball in place and has been more abducted away from the body and the shoulder is a ball in socket. Left leg is neutral, you can also see that the left foot has been place on the ground as fiction and balance for the body. In the right knee you can see in the muscle that is contracting is the hamstring which means the quad is relaxing. At the foot we can see dorsiflextion. The bones included is the femur and patella on top of the knee and the tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. The knee is a hinge joint.

My left shoulder stays felxed, and both left and right arms are fully extended through the follow through.
In the right knee the muscles that involve in this diagram are the gastrocnemius and the tibials anterior. The gastrocnemius is the one that is contracting and the tibials anterior is relaxing. The bones that are involved are the tibia, fibula, tarlsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. The joint in the ankle is at the start of plantar flexion and its a hinge joint.
As you can see in my left knee it is fully extended and the muscles that are working are the quads which is contracting and the hamstrings relaxing. Bones involved are the femur and petella.
Motor Plan also illustrated above. Photo 1 is loading phase. Photo 2 is the action phase. Photo 3 is follow through phase.
Interrelationship
Transfer of momentum is when an object is moved with momentum by another object. So when I pass the rugby ball I am transfering the momentum from my shoulder joints to the ball. Momentum is also P = Mass x Velocity which means that the ball has moved because of the mass of the ball and the speed (foward swing) of my arms to prevent the ball to travel depending on how much foward swing I use.
Refer to photos under biomechanics. In my sub routine I start off with my left foot planted on the ground for balance and for use of point in direction when throwing the rugby ball, while holding the rugby ball just in front of my body. My stance has my left leg placed in front which is extension at the knee joint which is the hinge joint. My backswing of my arms increase momentum to the ball by the mass of my arm with velocity so I can pass the ball to a fair distance, and my arms are abducted away from my body to get more momentum and speed into my rugby pass . My front swing of my arms should be traveling in a straight line, with improvement on accuracy of flight. My follow through will have my arms abducting away from my body pointing towards the player or target, in the follow through my shoulder joints and my elbow joints will be contracting and will have elbow and leg extension.
Newtons first law says an object is at rest or moves at a constant, unless acted upon by an external force. When holding the rugby ball in your hands before you passing the ball, the rugby ball is at rest. The ball has been in motion from being kicked and passed up and down the feild. When holding the ball, the ball is at rest making all the forces balanced. The force of gravity and normal force are applied to the hands of the passer. Those to forces are the only ones acting upon it at this tim. When I have relesed the ball from my hands, the forces become unbalanced.
Newton's 2nd Law occurs when passing the ball. The 2nd law states that if the mass of an object remains constant, acceleration increases as the force increases. So when passing the rugby ball, you have to use the right amount of force according to the amount of mass of the rugby ball, to throw it where intended and how fast of hard.
Newtons 3rd Law of Action-Reaction could be used in rugby, when passing. When I pass the ball, my hand exerts a force on the ball towards the target(which would be the action). The ball exerts an equal and opposite force on my hand(reaction). The third law of motion is that for every force, there is an equal reaction force in the opposite direction. Action/reaction is what allows me to make my way up and down the rugby field. When I take a stride, it puts force into the ground. Because the ground has too much mass for me to move it, the force travels back me and propels me forward. Because the ground will apply an equal and opposite reaction, whichever direction I applie force will be opposite to the direction force is applied back. If my foot pushes the ground behind me, the force from the ground (called “ground reaction”) will propel me forward. If I quickly applie force straight down, the ground reaction will propel me straight up and allow me to bounce back up for the follow through.
Since I play rugby these sports are almost very similar and so I pass alot. The anatomy in this is when my right and left elbow starts of with flexion with the tricep contracting and so the bicep is relaxing, and then finishes of at a extended position so my bicep is contracting while using the bones ulna, Radius, Humerus, Scapula, and Clavicle and also the phalanges that holds the ball in place, both of my elbows stay flexed through out the whole movement, also you see in all three diagrams the left knee is extended and the right is flexed. So since I have played similar sports such as rugby I know a fair knowledge of how to pass and so my knowledge of this movement is at a assosiative which means I am better than a begginer and still practising to make it a more affective pass and to get to a level where I can pass a rugby ball more distant and accurate.
When the rugby ball travels through the air, it always follows a curved, or parabolic, path because the movement of the ball in the vertical direction is influenced by the force of gravity. As the ball travels up, gravity slows it down until it stops briefly at its peak height; the ball then comes down, and gravity accelerates it until it hits the ground. This is the path of any object that is launched or thrown is called projectile motion.The rotation of the ball, spiral or end-over-end will influence how the ball slows down in flight, because the ball is affected by air drag. A spiraling pass will have less air drag, will not slow down as much and will be able to stay in the air longer and go further. The velocity of the ball and the angle of the kick are the major factors that determine, how long the ball will remain in the air (hang-time) and how far the ball will go, also the angle helps determine the distance traveled.
Projectile in Motion
Most of the time when a ball is passed in Rugby, there are two forces acting on it: the player throwing it backwards, and the momentum of the player (and therefore the ball) carrying it forward. We can represent these forces with vectors a and b as in the diagram below, where the blue squares are the players, and they are both running to the right of the screen.
The most important point to realize is that the ball will maintain its momentum from when it was being carried by the player (by Newton’s First Law of Motion, also known as the Law of Inertia).
Internal Forces : The internal forces that were due to the muscle contraction in the rugby pass were the shoulder, elbow, and the knee joints, this influenced my motion for the rugby pass, I was able to get more distance with my pass and generate more power. The muscles that were used were the pectorals, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, triceps, biceps, quadriceps, and hamstring.

External Forces : The forces that acted outside from the body were the gravitational and friction forces. The frictional force for the left leg is when I am 'pushing foward' at the start of my rugby pass (diagram 1) it allowed me to act backwards to prevent me from slipping while when I was pushing 'back wards' for my right leg at then end of my stride, so I was able to gain motion with my pass
Forces Acting
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