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Biology Mind Map on Evolution

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Elaina King

on 11 November 2012

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Transcript of Biology Mind Map on Evolution

Evolution of an Idea Who came up with the first theories of evolution, and how? Georges Cuvier (1769- 1832) Jean Lamark (1744- 1829) Charles Darwin (1809-1882) George Buffon (1707- 1788) Thomas Malthus (1766- 1834) Lyell (1797- 1875) Evolution Theory -species had been created in a more perfect form
but had changed over time Evolution Theory Population Growth - populations limited in size by environment (food supply)
- populations could not grow indefinitely - evolutionary change resulted from 2 principles:
1. use and disuse
2. inheritance of acquired characteristics Evolution Theory Evolution Theory- first detailed study of fossils
- did not believe species themselves changed
- proposed theory of catastrophism - the theory that the pattern of fossils could be accounted for by a series of global catastrophes that wiped out most species on Earth Evolution Theory - revolutionized geology with theory of uniformitarianism - theory that geological changes are slow and gradual and that natural laws and processes have not changed over time What did people think before the theory of evolution? Immutable 384-322 BCE most Europeans believed that species cannot change Fossil Record Biological Change Over Time How does change happen? Harmful Mutation reduces reproduction success Beneficial Mutation increases reproductive success Mutations Neutral Mutation no selective advantage or disadvantage Artifical Selection The Evidence for Evolution What proof do we have of evolution? Theory of Evolution Homologous Features Analogous features significant
difference but both prove evolution Vestigial Feature Voyage of the Beagle -Darwin traveled to the Galapagos Islands on the voyage of the Beagle and was taken back by the unusual variety of species Observations and Hypotheses: 1. many plants, birds, insects, and some reptiles were found so only they are able to reach remote islands by crossing the oceans
2. no native amphibians and few land mammals found so they were unable to cross ocean and will not be found on remote islands
3. many unique species were found so over time, ancestral species have evolved into different geographically isolated species
4. the unique species closely resemble species on nearest continental land mass so the unique species are descendants of the ancestral species from the nearest continental land mass and show similarities Biogeography scientific study of geographic distribution of organisms -used this evidence to prove
the changes in species over time
and their shared ancestry On the Origin of Species Adaptation -different in structure
but same function
-shows that they are
only distantly related
because they evolved
these features
independently -similar structures in different
organisms that have completely
different functions
-more closely related because all
have variations but were
constructed on same pattern feature or characteristic that makes an organism well suited for survival and reproductive success Natural Selection The hummingbird with the longest beak can reach into the deeper flowers that hummingbirds with shorter beaks cannot, therefore having less competition and more food. It is more likely to survive and pass down it's long beak genes to the next generation. It is naturally selected* for. Survival of the Fittest word to describe natural selection The Modern Theory of Evolution By Elaina King How do species evolve? What do we know now? Earth Earth is now known to be more then 4.5 billion years old, enough time for millions of species to evolve and change Radiometric Dating -helps us determine how old rocks are Gene Pool all alleles in a species/ population
-individuals inherit different combinations of alleles
which is why they have different traits
-some combinations are favored over others (natural selection)* Modern Paleontology -similar fossils of different eras in the same geographical area can literally show us the organism's evolutionary changes step by step
-this has been found all over the world Natural Selection a closer look at natural selection Types of selection sexual selection stabilizing selection disruptive selection directional selection variation in ability to attain mates Evolutionary Change without Selection Types of Evolutionary Change without Selection genetic drift genetic bottleneck founder effect Hardy-Weinberg principle -in large populations in which only random chance is at work, allele frequencies are expected to remain constant from generation to generation Based on Hardy-Weinberg principle... Biologists now know: -natural selection: favors passing down some alleles over others
-small population size: increases chance of genetic drift
-mutation: brings in new alleles to a population
-immigration or emigration: brings in or removes alleles from a population
-horizontal gene transfer: gaining new alleles from a different species Speciation the formation of a new species (definition) microevolution changes in allele frequencies and phenotypic traits within a population and species reproductive isolating mechanisms any behavioural, structural, or biochemical trait that prevents individuals of different species from reproducing successfully together prezygotic mechanism -prevent interspecies mating and fertilization behavioural isolation temporal isolation ecological isolation mechanical isolation gamete isolation ? postzgotic mechanism -prevent maturation and reproduction in offspring from interspecies reproduction zygotic morality hybrid inviability hybrid infertility allopatric speciation sympatric speciation Patterns of Evolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution convergent evolution coevolution -relatively quick evolution of a species
into many new species,
filling a variety of previously empty niches the large-scale evolution of a group into many different forms the evolution of similar traits in distantly related species one species evolves in response to another species' evolution Macroevolution In what way does evolution occur? large scale evolutionary changes (definition) derived trait theory of gradualism theory of punctuated equilibrium transitional form -trait that has been evolved
relatively recently with respect
to the species being discussed -theory that attributes large evolutionary changes to the accumulation of many small
ongoing changes -theory that attributes
evolutionary change to
relatively quick spurts of change
followed by periods of no change a fossil/species intermediate in form between two species in a direct line of descent
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