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Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders

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April M

on 15 November 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders

Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Identifying Psychological Disorders Medical Model Dissociative Disorders Conditions in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years Schizophrenia The profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought motivation, and behavior Personality Disorders Deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning Psychological Disorders The conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases that, like physical diseases, have biological causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures way of looking at Classification Causation DSM-IV-TR A classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems Comorbidity The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual Diathesis-Stress Model Suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress Dangers of Labeling may lead to Psychiatric labels can have negative consequences because many carry negative stereotypes and stigma Chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbances class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature Phobic Disorders Marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations Specific phobia irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual's ability to function type of Social phobia irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed arachnophobia is a type of Preparedness theory People are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears arachnophobia is common, this may demonstrate Panic Disorder Sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror Agoraphobia an extreme fear of venturing into public places is a common complication of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning Mood Disorders Depressive Disorders class of mental disorder in which mood disturbance is the predominant feature Bipolar Disorder Major Depressive Disorder Severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances Dysthymia Same symptoms as Major depressive disorder, but less severe and lasting at least 2 years Double Depression Moderately depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is punctuated by periods of major depression Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern An unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression) Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) The presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that at different times take control of the individual's behavior Dissociative Amnesia The sudden loss of memory for significant personal information Dissociative Fugue The sudden loss of memory for one's personal history, accompanied by an abrupt departure from home and the assumption of a new identity Symptoms Delusion A patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality Hallucination A false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation Disorganized speech Disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic Grossly Disorganized behavior Behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances Catatonic behavior A marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity Negative symptoms Emotional and social withdrawal; apathy; poverty of speech; and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion type of Types Odd/
Eccentric Dramatic/
Erratic Anxious/
Inhibited Cluster Type Schizotypal Peculiar or eccentric manners of speaking or dressing. Strange beliefs.
"Magical thinking" such as belief in ESP or telepathy. Difficulty forming relationships.
May react oddly in conversation, not respond, or talk to self.
Speech elaborate or difficult to follow.
(Possibly a mild form of schizophrenia) Paranoid Distrust in others, suspicion that people have sinister motives.
Apt to challenge the loyalties of friends and read hostile intentions into others' actions.
Prone to anger and aggressive outbursts but otherwise emotionally cold.
Often jealous, guarded, secretive, overly serious. Schizoid Extreme introversion and withdrawal from relationships.
Prefers to be alone, little interest in others.
Humorless, distant, often absorbed with own thoughts and feelings, a daydreamer.
Fearful of closeness, with poor social skills, often seen as a "loner." Impoverished moral sense or "conscience."
History of deception, crime, legal problems, impulsive and aggressive or violent behavior.
Little emotional empathy or remorse for hurting others.
Manipulative, careless, callous.
At high risk for substance abuse and alcoholism. Antisocial Unstable moods and intense, stormy personal relationships.
Frequent mood changes and anger, unpredictable impulses.
Self-mutilation or suicidal threats or gestures to get attention or manipulate others.
Self-image fluctuation and a tendency to see others as "all good" or "all bad." Borderline Constant attention seeking.
Grandiose language, provocative dress, exaggerated illnesses, all to gain attention.
Believes that everyone loves them.
Emotional, lively, overly dramatic, enthusiastic, and excessively flirtatious.
Shallow and labile true emotions.
"Onstage." Histrionic Inflated sense of self-importance, absorbed by fantasies of self and success.
Exaggerates own achievement, assumes others will recognize they are superior.
Good first impressions but poor longer-term relationships.
Exploitative of others. Narcissistic Socially anxious and uncomfortable unless they are confident of being liked.
In contrast with schizoid person, yearns for social contact.
Fears criticism and worries about being embarrassed in front of others.
Avoids social situations due to fear of rejection. Avoidant Submissive, dependent, requiring excessive approval, reassurance, and advice.
Clings to people and fears losing them.
Lacking self-confidence.
Uncomfortable when alone.
May be devastated by end of close relationship or suicidal if breakup is threatened. Dependent Conscientious, orderly, perfectionist.
Excessive need to do everything "right."
Inflexibly high standards and caution can interfere with their productivity.
Fear of errors can make them strict and controlling.
Poor expression of emotions.
(Not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder) Obsessive-Compulsive https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1HU3KPhhMUnYw6EUDVt7xsn7U-3uSSAFbP1fQ58BOZZ0
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