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Transcript of Cellular respiration
The ultimate goal of cellular respiration is to extract energy from nutrient molecules
and store it in a form that the cell can use for its many and varied energy-requiring activities. In cellular respiration, the primary energy transfer is from glucose to ATP.
During the breakdown of the glucose molecule electrons
are removed from substrates and are received by oxygen
which combine with hydrogen and form water.
Phases of cellular respiration
There are four stages and they happen in three different places within the cell
Pyruvate produced by glycolysis enters the mitochondrion by active transport and is broken down to acetyl CoA and a molecule CO2 is removed from each of the pyruvates.
The oxidation happens in mitochondrial matrix
organisms that can build all organic compounds from simple inorganic compounds using light in the process.
organisms that feed on other organisms to obtain chemical energy.
organisms that can build all the organic compounds from simple inorganic compounds without using light energy
Aerobic cellular respiration
process the requires oxygen and produces carbon ( complete break down of glucose)
is a high energy molecule and its breakdown products CO and H2O are low energy molecules.
1. to make the energy intermediates
2-breaks the bonds between
atoms of glucose resulting in
3. to move hydrogen atom electrons from glucose to oxygen forming
six water molecule
-glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and results in oxidation of glucose (C6) into two molecules of pyruvate (C3).
pyruvate (C3) --> acetyl CoA (C2) + CO2
or citric acid cycle is a series of oxidation reaction in the matrix that results in NADH and FADH2.
There are 2 molecules of acetyl CoA that enter in this cycle so at the end there are 2 ATP molecules per 1 glucose molecule and 2CO2 as well are released.
-multistep process consisting of a group of proteins complexes and small organic molecules embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane
Electron transport and chemiosmosis (oxidative phosphorylation)
mechanism forming ATP directly in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
mechanism forming ATP indirectly through
a series of enzyme-catalyzed
reactions involving oxygen as the
final electron acceptor
This process is oxidative because
it involves a number of sequential redox reactions, with oxygen being the final electron
Oxidative phosphorylation begins when a compound called nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide, NAD+, removes two hydrogen atoms (two protons and two electrons) from a portion of the original glucose molecule.
Means “splitting of sugar”-breaks glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules (three carbons)
Does not require O2- anaerobic
Takes place in cytoplasm and each step of it is catalyzed by a specific enzyme
2C3H4O3 (pyruvic acid)
The energy conversion efficiency of glycolysis (per mole glucose processed) is calculated as follows:
The two pyruvate molecules formed in glycolysis are transported through the two mitochondrial membranes into the matrix .
1 The remaining two-carbon portion is oxidized by NAD1. In the process, NAD1 gains two hydrogen atoms (two protons and two electrons) This reaction transfers potential energy to NAD1.
The Krebs cycle
Total ATP yield per glucose Conversions
NADH produced in the cytoplasm produces t
by the electron transport system.
NADH produced in the mitochondria produce
FADH2 adds its electrons to the electron transport system at a lower level than NADH, so it produces
2 NADH (=
these are converted to ATP in the mitochondria during cellular respiration)
Formation of Acetyl CoA
2 NADH (=
6 NADH (=
2 FADH2 (=
= 4 ATP
6 NADH = 2 FADH2
2 NADH = 4 ATP
- can happen in the presence or absence of oxygen
-There are ten steps in glycolysis and each one is catalyzed by a specific enzyme.
-Produces 2 ATP and 2 NADH molecules
2 mol ATP x 31 kJ/mol ATP= 62 kJ
total free energy in 1 mol of glucose =2870 kJ
energy conversion efficiency 5}
there are broken down by an enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase .
2. A sulfur-containing compound called coenzyme A (CoA) is attached to the acetate component, forming acetyl-CoA. The carbon–sulfur bond that holds the acetyl group to coenzyme A is unstable. This prepares the two-carbon acetyl portionof this molecule for further oxidation in the Krebs cycle. CoA is a derivative of vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid.
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
in this stage NADH and FADH2 are used to make more ATP
- requires oxygen
High energy electrons are removed from NADH ad FADH2 and are oxidized and ATP is made by phosphorylation of ADP