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The French and Indian War
Transcript of The French and Indian War
The French and Indian War
North America in 1750
1754 - The First Clash
The Ohio Valley- This term refers to the region that surrounds the Ohio River (Also Known as the Ohio River Valley).
Virginia sent George Washington and his militia to go and tell the French that they have built a fort in a region that was claimed by the British. On their way, they suprise attacked French soldiers, killing ten including Coulon de Jumonville, a French Commander. Then they took 21 prisoners and retreated. They then built Fort Necessity.
*Delaware and Shawnee Indians
1754 - Albany Plan of Union
Albany Congress - It was a way for the colonists to try and find a way to protect themselves. One way was for representatives from seven colonies to meet with the Iroquois Chiefs in Albany, New York. Their goal was to avoid the Iroquois joining up with the French, and have them fight on their side. Also others thought that the colonies should join together for defense.
Ben Franklin set up the meeting of this congress. He used this famous flag to try and get congresses support.
The main colonies were: Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and all of the New England Colonies.
1755 - Britain Decides to Eliminate French Presence in North America
Only Br. Success expelled France from Louisiana.
He Attacked Ohio Valley, Mohawk Valley, and Acadia
Killed 10 mi. from ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces.
Gen. Edward Braddock - He was British Commander-in-chief of the thirteen colonies.
1756 - War Is Formally Declared!
Marquis de Montcalm
Native American tribes exploited both sides!
British-American Colonial Tensions
Military Discipline State of mind:
Methods of Fighting:
1757 - William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister
RESULTS? - Colonial morale increased by 1758.
- col. loyalty & mil. cooperation Britain would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs.
He funded the expansion of militias in North America resulting in 50,000 men from Britain and the Colonies.
He left the British with victory, debt and more land to look over.
1758-1761 - The Tide Turns for England
1763 - Treaty of Paris
North America in 1763
Effects of the War on Britain?
Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the American Colonials
The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier
British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt.
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
Colonials- Paxton Boys (PA)
Paxton Boys- a group that was devoted to taking the rights Benjamin Fanklin had given the natives away. They massacred 20 Indians and the court sided with them on the Indians say.
British Proclamation Line of 1763.
Rethinking Their Empire
He lost. Parliamentary law and custom had equal weight.
1761 - writs of assistance
James Otis’ case- called the Writs of Assistance and he wanted to protect colonists from house searches.
Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute.
Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling:
The colonies all united against a cause for the first time instead of being separate.
It mad them all mad at Britan that they could not expand their borders
England's North American Territory became much larger.
It made England have double the debt then it did last. The war costs drained them.
The colonists were beginning to get angry at how England was keeping them behind the Appalachians.
By the colonists fighting in the war, they learned how to fight against an enemy together. Soon that enemy would be Britain.
Lost all of its land in North America.
Got all of the French land west of the Mississippi River, but gave England Florida.
Got all French land east of the Mississippi, gained Spanish Florida.
In this period of time, Spain allies with France and the Cherokees declare war on England.
The French and Indian war ends and the treaty of Paris is signed. Tensions rise because of the taxes and proclamation line England has put in place for the colonists.
March in single filed line.
Highly Disciplined with drills
Undisciplined and lacking military protocol
Financed by the British Parliament
The state governments
Was 1763 a "Turning Point" for British-colonial relationships?
Treaty of Paris 1763 signing.