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History of TV

lee sa wong

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of Television

Television WWII: FCC halted TV
development 1948:
Rapid growth
Stopped new station license 1952: FCC established
rules to minimize interference
(12 VHF and 70 UHF channels)
1956, Ampex developed videotape
By 1960, most programs were taped
UHF channels didn’t compete well
Network colour broadcasts began, up to about 3 hours per day by 1960
Gunsmoke Ed Sullivan's show Studio One Bewitched 1970s: Growing Public Concern
Surgeon General’s report on violent TV
Heavy viewing -> violence among children
Cable TV began competing with TV
Programming trends: Crime drama, adult sitcoms & prime time soap operas
Eg: The FBI, Charlie Angels, etc.
1980s & 1990s:
Continuing erosion of big networks’ audiences
Increased competition from new networks & cable channels
80s: Family oriented show
90s: Newsmagazine
2000: Cable TV vs broadcast TV
Reached more than 68% of population
Channel capacity increased
New programming services emerged

2000: VCR
90% of US households VCR impact on broadcast & cable TV
Time shifting, zap, zip & grazing
Advertisers’ concern
Low-power TV (LPTV)
Direct broadcast by Satellite (DBS): 1994
Telecommunication Act of 1996
TV program ratings & V-chip 2000: Reality prog. & Cable
Contemporary Broadcast TV
Audiences are shrinking
Advertising dollars going to web
Digital Video Recorders (DVRs)
Increase in number; replace VCRs Catching shows on TV become obsolete
Greater reliance on reality shows than scripted shows TV is on an average of 8 hours per day
Broadcast networks still best for advertisers to reach audience Advatage of DTV:
Clearer pic & sound
More rectangular format
Allows HDTV
Channel can be subdivided & send multiple programs at the same time
TV in the Digital Age Feb 17 2009: Official transition from analog to digital TV broadcasting
Advantage of DTV Broadcasters go online!
More programs available on Internet
Broadcasters’ websites offering more
Full-screen & high-resolution streaming video
Original online content
Social networking options
MySpace pages
Advertising on sites & streaming video
Not yet profitable, but not too risky
Reach younger audiences
Features of TV:
Ubiquitous – now in 99% of U.S. homes
Dominant source of news and entertainment
One-hour drama: $2 million per show
30-second prime time ad: $100,000
Specialized content
Lower audience share Back into the days... Television Broadcasters supplying content to cell phones
Mobile pedestrian handheld technology
Organization of the Broadcast Television Industry
Production: three major sources
Local – news, sports, community affairs
Syndicated – Oprah, Tyra Banks
Network – CSI, Will and Grace
Local station departments
Sales – selling time, scheduling ads, billing clients
Engineering – maintains and operates technical equipment
Production/programming – local productions, acquisitions, scheduling
News – local news production
Administration Network departments
Sales – commercials, handles ad agencies
Entertainment – new programs
Owned & Operated Department – administers those stations owned by the networks
Affiliate Relations – supervises all contracts with stations affiliated with the network, keep them happy
News – network news and public-affairs programming
Sports – responsible for all sports programming
Standards – content checks for legal and network compliance
Operations – sends programs to affiliates
Producing TV Programmes Getting TV Programs on the Air
News is the thing
Camera crews, reporters, editors
News director and newscast producer
Anchorpeople, weather & sports forecasters
Prime time (8-11 pm EST)
25 pilots per year per network
1) Product Placement
2) Text messages
3) Advertisers:
National advertisers
National spot advertisers
Local advertisers
Nielsen Television Index
People Meter, national sample = 5000
Testing Portable People Meter (PPM)
Diary Calculation

Number of households watching a program/
Number of TV HH

Audience share:
Number of households watching a program/
Number of TV HUT
The Golden Age of TV
Full transcript