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Transcript of Racism
and Charmaine Natomagan Amanda E. Lewis Cathy Van Ingen Dr. Joannie Halas Biographies -Associate Professor in the Departments of Sociology and African American Studies at Emory University.
-Primary areas of research and teaching are race and ethnic relations, sociology of education (particularly urban schools), gender, and qualitative and ethnographic research methods.
-She has written many papers on these topics such as "Race and School Achievement in a Desegregated Suburb: Reconsidering the Oppositional Culture Explanation.", "Researching 'Black' Educational Experiences and Outcomes: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations." and "Racial Apathy and Hurricane Katrina: The Social Anatomy of Prejudice in the Post-Civil Rights Era."
-Her article "There is no 'race' in the schoolyard: color-blind ideology in an (almost) all-white school" examines the racial messages and lessons students get from parents and teachers in one suburban school community. -Dr. Halas has a PhD from the University of Alberta where she focus on interpretive inquiry, postmodern representation, as well as advanced methods in multiple regression.
-Dr.Halas has taught three types of classes, Culturally Relevant Physical Education and Health,Research in Kinesiology and Recreation Studies, and Developmental Games and Activities.
-She is currently working at the University of Manitoba and is part of the Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management. -is an associate professor at the University of Manitoba in the department of kinesiology.
-she has done research on cultural studies of sport and leisure, Boxing history and the contemporary boxing scene, Geographies of sport and physical activity, Theories of the body, race, gender and sexuality, Qualitative research methods, and is currently working on Shape Your Life boxing project.
-Van Ingen and Dr. Halas wrote the article "Claiming Space: Aboriginal Students within School Landscapes" for two reasons It attempts to highlight the experiential aspects of racialized geographies within schools and, at the same time, it grapples with the processes that maintain or challenge thespatial conditions for the construction of whiteness. Racism Important Terms to Know Brief History of Race within Canada and United States Race: The Power of an Illusion:
The Story We Tell. Episode 2 Canada United States There Is No ''Race'' in the Schoolyard:
Color-Blind Ideology in an (Almost) All-White School By: Amanda E. Lewis Claiming Space: Aboriginal Students within School Landscapes By: Cathy Van Ingen & Joannie Halas Conclusion Questions Conclusion Why did Amanda Lewis Write this Article? Lewis starts her article by pointing out that there has been plenty of research done regarding race in an urban educational setting or schools predominately populated with students of colour, but less work has been done to look at all-white or almost all-white schools. She was interested to find out if local community members believed race mattered, what racial messages were being passed on and in what way those messages were being conveyed. Summary Amanda Lewis conducted a study to examine the racial messages, what was being taught within the school and lessons students get from parents and teachers at Foresthill’s Elementary. This school is predominantly white and is located in the suburbs. Foresthill’s Elementary is surrounded by a neighbourhood of middle and upper-middle class people. She collected her data during the 1997-1998 school year. She talks to students, teachers and even parents about their thoughts on race and what was taught within the school. Conclusion “Victims of oppression cannot stop their victimization. They can fight against it, protect themselves from its effects, learn to achieve in spite of it, but they cannot stop something they are not creating. Whites invented race and maintain racial oppression in all its forms: individual, institutional and cultural. The white person who comes to feel this reality and is able to communicate it no longer looks to the victims for solutions to their oppression” Stephan Cater (1997) Did you notice as a child racial cliques within your school or community? Why do you think this happens? - Canada is a nation that was built on the genocide and forced removal of Indigenous people who had been living on the territory for several thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. - The race science being conducted and disseminated in the United States was adopted into government programs and policies in Canada as well. Blacks and Indigenous people were inslaved, Chinese workers were excluded from citizenship, and extremist hate groups have long flourished in Canada. - The "mosaic" is the dominant image used to describe Canadian racial and ethnic diversity. - When the United States was formed, freedom and equality - regardless of religion or class status - were radical new ideas. -The United States' economy was based on the enslavement of African peoples and the displacement and genocide of Indigenous North American peoples. - In the late 1600s the term white first appeared in colonial law. - By 1790 people were asked to claim their race on the census, and by 1825 measurements of blood ancestry determined who would be classified as "Indian". - In 1923 the court stated that Whiteness was based on the common understanding of the White man. "If you can control a man's thinking, you don't have to worry about his actions. If you can determine what a man thinks, you don't have to worry about what he will do. If you make a man believe that he is inferior, you don't have to compel him to seek an inferior status, he will do so without being told, and if you can make a man believe that he is justly an outcast, you don't have to order him to the back door, he will go to the back door on his own, and if there is no back door, the very nature of the man will demand that you build one." (pg 113) Conclusion •urban school division has initiated a university-school division partnership that will increase the number of Aboriginal teachers in their schools •youth engagement and non-aboriginal teacher, created a more welcoming space •Aboriginal transition program - Explores the relationship and relevance of school landscapes to the question of race in Canadian schools. -They were influenced by critical race theory from which they took as a starting point that race and racism is deeply embedded in school landscapes and affects the education and lives of Aboriginal students. -Study research to utilize a geographic focus to unpack the visual, spatial and ideological dimensions of schools as they are experienced in everyday lives of Aboriginal students and staff. -This paper evolved out of a larger four year project that investigated the quality and cultural relevance of physical education for Aboriginal youth in Manitoba school, but observations had to be extended beyond the gymnasium to include observations of students before and after school, during class change, at lunch and in selected academic classes -Four years research focusing on four schools in Manitoba. Two schools for Aboriginal students(one in an urban setting and one on a rural reserve) and two public cross-cultural schools( one urban and one rural setting). -Interviewed the students and staff, watched how the school was being operated and the relationships between the staff and Aboriginal students. Evidence •Aboriginal students’ lives are rarely given spatial expression.
•Cross-cultural teaching staff were non-Aboriginal and white. •Limited Aboriginal cultural and language resources •There was more segregation than integration even though it was a multicultural school •Manitoba has one of the lowest levels of school attendance for Aboriginal youth. •Teachers did not make an effort to track down those Aboriginal students. •Teachers didn’t call the students home thinking that parents don’t care anyway or viewing their student to have social problems at home such as alcohol or education was not valued. •More into the research they began to see the cultural dis-connect that impacted the quality of relationships between the aboriginal and non-aboriginal students. •The segregation of racial groups within the school was particularly evident by where marginalized students chose to hang out during breaks(Neechie doors) •Aboriginal students were perceived as the bad kids. some purposely embraced their identities as bad students: in the absence of respect through achievement, they sought respect through fear •Uneven application of rules believed to be unfair. •Professional development to help teachers develop and implement culturally appropriate programming for Aboriginal students. •White controlled school landscapes are structured in ways that maintain rather than challenge, racial hierarchies. •White privilege is written into the school landscapes in ways that cover the often hidden subtext of race and racism •Aboriginal school are actively engaged in the cultural landscaping of identity Do you consider yourself colour-blind or are you colour-conscience? is believed to be biological. However race, like gender, is socially constructed. Race as a social idea has profound significance in all aspects of our lives such as where we live and with whom we spend our time. Race Racism In the United States and Canada, racism refers to white racial and cultural prejudice and discrimination, supported by institutional power and authority, used to the advantage of Whites and the disadvantage of people of Colour. Racism encompasses economic, political, social, and institutional actions and beliefs that perpetuate an unequal distribution of privileges, resources, and power between Whites and people of Colour. Colour-blindness: is a sociological term referring to the disregard of racial characteristics to create everyone as equals. Colour-Conscience (Race Conscience) Being colour-conscious is the opposite of being colour-blind. Colour-conscious is where you are conscious of your race and that of others. Your race becomes a part of who you are in your own eyes, of how you look at yourself: “I am a First Nations woman.” School Landscape is the way a school is set up and designed using material forms of culture. Contact zone refers to ‘social spaces where disparate cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in highly asymmetrical relations of domination and subordination- like colonialism, slavery or their after maths as they are lived out across the globe today. -She found that most teachers and parents believed that race did not matter and we should all be colour-blind. Findings - It is important to talk about how race operates no matter the setting because race matters whether it is in an (almost) all-white school, like Foresthill’s Elementary or a multicultural school. - Lewis points out that this is not about blaming students, families or schools but changing what is being done because it is important that all-white schools have multiculturalism. - We need to realize what is still “racial” about our lives because we can not make any progress in moving forward. Nothing is going to change if children are not exposed and shown something different. - Teachers need to help students develop the ability to honestly and accurately assess their worlds, rather than setting them back with the colour-blind myth. - The school down played racial incidents and had minimal to no consequences. It was thought that it was just "something kids do". - Teachers and parents thought that multicultural education was not needed because Foresthill's Elementary did not have many coloured kids. Summary